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L161 Q-I096 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Zoology, Vol. XVIII, Plate IX 




MAP SHOWING ROUTE OF INDO-CHINESE SECTION OF KELLEY-ROOSEVELTS 
ASIATIC EXPEDITION 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUJ^DED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

PUBLICATION 312 
ZOOLOGICAL SERIES VOL. XVIII, No. 10 



MAMMALS OF THE KELLEY-ROOSEVELTS 
AND DELACOUR ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS 



BY 

WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OP ZOOLOGY 



THE UD3ARY CF TSE 

AUG 29 1932 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 



V NATURAL 
** HISTORY 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 
AUGUST 19, 1932 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BT FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



FI 

ID 

v.18 



MAMMALS OF THE KELLEY-ROOSEVELTS AND 
DELACOUR ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS 



BY WILFRED H. OSGOOD 



The William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition of Field 
Museum in 1928-29, by division into three sections, was able to 
cover a wide extent of territory in central and southeastern Asia. 
Each section touched faunal areas not reached by the others and 
the resulting collection of mammals is one of unusual size, variety, 
and interest. The species represented are from such diverse regions 
as the tropical coast of Cochin China and the lofty mountains of 
western Szechwan toward the borders of Thibet. Nevertheless, it 
seems best to record the entire collection in a single report. In 
fact, as appears later, there are advantages in doing so, for western 
China, in spite of its temperate climate, has a mammalian fauna 
many elements of which extend into French Indo-China. 

The expedition, so liberally financed by the late William V. 
Kelley, a Trustee and Benefactor of Field Museum, was one of the 
best equipped ever to take the field in Asia and, considering the short 
time of actual operations, the results are quite remarkable. Colonel 
Theodore Roosevelt and his brother, Kermit Roosevelt, with their 
friend, C. Suydam Cutting, formed what may be called the first 
section. They traveled rapidly, covering a long route and devoting 
themselves mainly to hunting large game and animals of especial 
rarity. Their Chinese interpreter, Jack Young, was equipped for 
collecting small mammals, and, although his time for this was 
quite limited, he "picked up" occasional specimens of interest. This 
first section, starting from Rangoon, proceeded directly through 
Burma to Bhamo and thence northward via Tengyueh, Talifu, 
Likiang, Yungning, Muli, and Chiulung to Tatsienlu. From this 
well-known place they went to Mouping and then, returning south- 
ward through Yachow, they crossed the Tung River and continued 
just east of the Yalung River through Yehli, Tachow, and Ning- 
yuan and thence very rapidly to railhead at Yunnanfu. From this 
point, Kermit Roosevelt, in response to urgent demands, returned 
to the United States while Theodore Roosevelt and C. Suydam 
Cutting went on to Saigon, Cochin China, to procure specimens of 
large game, especially seladang, banteng, and water buffalo. A full 

193 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

account of the trip through Yunnan and Szechwan with illustrations 
and a detailed map has since been published. 1 

What may be called the second section was conducted by Herbert 
Stevens, who accompanied the Roosevelts as far as Likiang and 
subsequently continued alone, making detailed collections along a 
route somewhat similar to theirs through Yunnan and Szechwan. 
Mr. Stevens has published a brief account of his itinerary with 
sketches of peaks and a small map of the region about Tatsienlu. 2 
He states: "On March 7 I left Likiang, spending fifty-five days en 
route in camp and thirty-eight days on the march, via Yungning, 
Muli, Kopadi, Kulu, Kon La 14,600 feet, Yonka La 15,000 feet, 
Tiyu 12,900 feet (Gompa), Yatsu 11,200 feet, Baurong 8,000 feet, 
Patei, Wushi 12,000 feet, Kusata (Gompa), Chentze 13,000 feet, 
Laila hamlet 12,400 feet, Chaulu 13,600 feet (Gompa), Lai Chu, 
Zamba Ku 11,600 feet, Trazya 12,100 feet, Haja Tungu 13,000 feet 
(Gompa), Haja La 15,300 feet, Cheto, to Tatsienlu, where I arrived 
June 1." Mammals were collected along most of this route and 
later from a few other localities, mainly Ulongkong, a short distance 
south of Tatsienlu, and Hlagong, a short distance west. An account 
of the birds, which are represented by many more localities than the 
mammals, is soon to be published by Field Museum. 

The mammals collected by Stevens number about five hundred, 
providing a good representation of the general mammal fauna of 
central Yunnan and western Szechwan. At Wushi, between Baurong 
and Tatsienlu and east of the Yalung River, he obtained two 
undescribed subspecies of rodents, a vole (Eothenomys custos hintoni) 
and a pika (Ochotona cansa stevensi). 

The third section of the expedition devoted itself to concentrated 
work in northern Indo-China, mainly in the province of Tonkin. 
Under the leadership of Harold J. Coolidge, Jr., 3 a party of four was 
organized in which Russell W. Hendee was the mammalogist, 
Josselyn Van Tyne 4 ornithologist, and Ralph E. Wheeler physician 
and parasitologist. After a brief stop in Annam, where collections 
were made near Quangtri, this party proceeded to Haiphong and 
Hanoi and thence up the valley of the Riviere Noire. They passed 
on into northern Laos and worked there from a base at Phong Saly, 

1 Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt, Trailing the Giant Panda, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, New York, 1929. 

2 Geog. Journ., 75, pp. 353-356, 1930. 

3 Now Assistant Curator of Mammals, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

4 Assistant Curator of Birds, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 195 

finally descending the Mekong River with a short stop at Vientiane 
to Savannaket and thence overland to Hue". The route is shown 
on the accompanying map (Plate IX, facing p. 191) and in the 
report on the birds, 1 which has already been published, there is 
given a complete list and description of all localities visited. 

Original plans had contemplated that the Roosevelts in returning 
from China would join the Indo-Chinese section on the Mekong 
River, but circumstances prevented and, instead, Mr. Hendee, on 
May 14, detached himself from the rest of the party in Laos and 
started down the Mekong, intending to go to Hue and thence 
around the coast to join Theodore Roosevelt at Saigon. Shortly 
after leaving, Hendee was attacked by a malignant fever which 
increased in intensity until he reached Vientiane and was there 
taken to a hospital in a critical condition on June 3. Three days 
later, in spite of the best available care, he died, leaving a record 
as one of the best all-around zoological collectors who ever took 
the field. 

Largely due to Hendee's skill and energy, the Indo-Chinese collec- 
tion of mammals is one of exceptional variety and interest. Nothing 
escaped him, and his specimens, as Thomas has said previously of 
those taken by him in South America, "are a delight to work with." 

Another feature contributing materially to the success of the 
Indo-Chinese section of the expedition was the whole-hearted 
cooperation of French officials. Grateful acknowledgments are due 
to P. Jabouille, at that time Administrator of Annam and himself 
an ornithologist of note, co-author with Jean Delacour of the sumptu- 
ous, four-volume work "Les Oiseaux de Tlndochine Frangaise." 2 
Jabouille detailed several trained native collectors to accompany 
the expedition; he opened his own house in Hue to the party; and 
both officially and personally he rendered invaluable assistance 
wherever possible. 

The choice of Indo-China as a field for concentrated work by 
one division of the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition, although a natural 
one from its geographic position in relation to the other areas visited, 
was largely influenced by the advice and cooperation of the prominent 
French ornithologist, Jean Delacour. For some years Delacour has 
been conducting explorations in French Indo-China and, although 
his primary interest is in birds, his expeditions in every case have 

1 Bangs and Van Tyne, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 18, No. 3, pp. 33-119, 
1931. 

2 Exposition Coloniale Internationale, Paris, 1931. 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

made important collections of mammals. These mammals were 
sent mainly to the British Museum where they were studied and 
described by the late Oldfield Thomas. Just prior to this cooperation 
with Delacour, the British Museum had, itself, in 1923, sent Herbert 
Stevens into Tonkin especially to collect mammals. The result was 
a series of four publications by Thomas from 1925 to 1929 (p. 199) 
on mammals from French Indo-China in which no less than nineteen 
supposed new forms were described and knowledge of the fauna, 
especially that of Tonkin, was enormously enlarged. 

In studying the collections of the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition, 
it became of the utmost importance to examine the types of the 
new forms lately named by Thomas and to make comparison with 
the accumulation of Indo-Chinese mammals in the British Museum, 
this being the only collection of any size in existence from the region. 
Through reservation of funds generously provided by William V. 
Kelley this was made possible, and a large number of selected speci- 
mens were taken to London and studied in connection with the 
unrivaled collection there. The cordial cooperation of the authorities 
of the British Natural History Museum made this a most pleasant 
and profitable undertaking. Especial thanks are due and most 
gratefully rendered to the Director, C. Tate Regan, to the Keeper 
of Zoology, M. T. Caiman, and to the Assistant Keeper of Zoology, 
M. A. C. Hinton, in charge of the Division of Mammals. 

While this work was under way, still another Indo-Chinese collec- 
tion was received at the British Museum from M. Delacour. This 
was made in 1929-30, after the return of the Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition, the collecting having been done by Delacour in person 
with the assistance of the British collector, Willoughby Lowe. The 
advantages of studying this collection in conjunction with the one 
already in hand were obvious and its generous submission for that 
purpose through agreement between Delacour and the British 
Museum was gratefully accepted. As a result, after brief preliminary 
examination in London, a large part of this collection was shipped 
to Field Museum where it has been worked out in detail. Division 
of the collection leaves a large share of it in the British Museum and 
in Field Museum, with a considerable number assigned to the Paris 
Museum, including certain specimens of large size especially taken 
by Delacour for mounting and exhibition at the French Colonial 
Exposition of 1931. Types of new forms, seven in number, are in 
the British Museum. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 197 

In size and importance, the collection made by Delacour and 
Lowe in 1929-30 rivals that of the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition, 
but the number of localities represented is much more limited. By 
far the greater part of it is from the vicinity of Chapa, Tonkin. 
Continuous work was carried on at this place for two months during 
November and December, 1929. A large corps of native collectors 
was organized which brought in material from all the surrounding 
country, including localities well above Chapa, and others doubtless 
well below it. Most of the specimens are labeled simply "Chapa," 
but a considerable number are definitely designated as coming from 
"Lo Qui Ho," a station high up on the slopes or perhaps at the very 
summit of Mount Fan Si Pan, which rises behind Chapa to a height 
variously stated as from 8,000 to 10,000 feet, the altitude of Chapa 
being 4,300 feet. The exact altitude for individual specimens, there- 
fore, is not certain in all cases. Besides those from the vicinity of 
Chapa, the collection contains an interesting series of specimens 
from Hoi Xuan, a locality near the coast in Annam and just below 
the border of Tonkin in a region having faunal affinity with Tonkin 
rather than Annam. In addition there are about seventy specimens 
from various localities, some of them quite far south in Annam and 
even in Cambodia, collected by the French botanist Poilane and 
obtained from him by Delacour and Jabouille. 

A small but interesting collection made by F. R. Wulsin in 1924 
for the United States National Museum has also been examined in 
conjunction with the other material from the same region. It con- 
sists of about fifty specimens, mainly from Lai Chau in northwestern 
Tonkin and Vientiane on the Mekong River in Laos. For the 
privilege of reviewing this collection, I am indebted to Gerrit S. 
Miller, Curator of Mammals. 

Finally, a further Indo-Chinese collection of mammals has lately 
been acquired by Field Museum through cooperation with Delacour. 
This consists of some 215 specimens, including species not otherwise 
well represented and providing welcome information as to ranges 
and relationships. The collection was made by Delacour and assist- 
ants during a brief expedition from November 18, 1931, to January 
26, 1932. A much more extensive expedition had been intended 
but circumstances prevented and work was confined to a few localities 
about the Boloven Plateau in southern Laos. The exact localities, 
all of which are near latitude 15 N., are described by Delacour, 
as follows: 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Pakse. On the Mekong River. Altitude 300 feet. 

Thateng. On the eastern border of the Boloven Plateau, ninety 
kilometers northeast of Pakse. Altitude 3,000 feet. 

Banphone. On the side of the Boloven Plateau, forty kilometers 
east of Thateng. Altitude 600 feet. 

Saravane. Forty-five kilometers northeast of Thateng. Altitude 
4,800 feet. 

Paleng. Four kilometers northeast of Thateng. Altitude 2,500 
feet. 

Bassac. On the right (west) bank of the Mekong nearly opposite 
Pakse. Altitude 300 feet. 

Phukong Ntoul. Twenty-five kilometers southwest of Thateng. 
Altitude 4,800 feet. 

Owing to its late arrival just as this report was being completed 
for the press, the last Delacour collection has not had wholly satis- 
factory examination mainly because all the skulls were not cleaned 
and the larger skins not "made up." It has seemed important, 
however, to list all the specimens and so far as possible to bring 
knowledge of the region to date. 

Although the several collections above mentioned cover by far 
the larger part of the mammals of Tonkin, Laos, and Annam, and 
although in studying them it has been necessary to review practically 
the entire mammal fauna, the time for an exhaustive account of 
the mammals of Indo-China is still in the future. Such an account 
preferably should combine field work and museum study. For the 
present, therefore, I have been content to record mainly the material 
in hand. In order to bring the work of recent years together, how- 
ever, the records published in four papers by Thomas have been 
collated and included so far as possible. Therefore all the expeditions 
sponsored or participated in by Delacour are covered. 

In recording specimens from the different collections, slight 
abbreviations have been used as follows: 

1. K.-R. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition, including specimens 
collected by Theodore Roosevelt, Kermit Roosevelt, C. Suydam 
Cutting, Herbert Stevens, Jack Young, Harold J. Coolidge, Jr., 
Russell W. Hendee, Ralph E. Wheeler, Josselyn Van Tyne. Material 
in Field Museum. 

2. D. & L. 1929-30. Specimens collected by Jean Delacour, 
P. Jabouille, Willoughby Lowe, and H. Poilane. Material in British 
Museum, Field Museum and Paris Museum. 



1932 



MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 



199 



3. WULSIN 1924. Specimens collected by F. R. Wulsin. Material 
in United States National Museum. 

4. DEL. 1931-32. Specimens collected by Jean Delacour. 
Material in Field Museum. 

5. REC. 1925-29. Specimens collected by Herbert Stevens, Jean 
Delacour, Willoughby Lowe. Material in British Museum and Paris 
Museum. Records published in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1925, pp. 
495-506; 1927, pp. 41-58; 1928, pp. 139-150; 1928 (Jan., 1929), 
pp. 831-841. 

In the lists of specimens, Indo-Chinese localities have their 
respective provinces indicated by the initial letters, as A. for Annam, 
L. for Laos, C. for Cambodia, C.C. for Cochin China. 

New forms described are as follows: 



Pithecus delacouri 

Macaco, assamensis coolidgei 

Triaenops wheeleri 

Myotis siligorensis alticraniatus 

Discopus denticulus 

Neotetracus sinensis fulvescens 

Chodsigoa lowei 

Belomys pearsoni blandus 

Callosciurus erythraeus hendeei 



Callosciurus flavimanus bolovensis 
Dremomys -pyrrhomerus gularis 
Tamiops monticolm olivaceus 
Typhlomys cinereus chapensis 
Rattus indosinicus 
Dacnomys millardi ingens 
Vandeleuria dumeticola scandens 
Eothenomys custos hintoni 
Ochotona cansa stevensi 



Muntiacus rooseveltorum 

Hylobates concolor Harlan. BLACK GIBBON. 

Hylobates concolor Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, part 2, p. 231, 
pis. 9,10, 1837 Borneo (sic!); Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 736, 
1927 "Hainan or the adjoining mainland of Tonkin, and not from 
Borneo"; Kloss, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 124, 1929 "undoubtedly 
. . . Hainan." 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 8; Hoi Xuan, A. 1. 

Although there have been reports of entirely black gibbons on 
the mainland of Tonkin, the only specimen previously recorded from 
there is the one forming the basis of the name nasutus, a synonym 
of concolor. This is said to have come from Along Bay, the exact 
locality being unknown. The present specimens, therefore, provide 
welcome information as to the exact district in which the typical 
form is found. Its range is evidently quite limited since the white- 
cheeked form, leucogenys, occurs not far inland and the buff-cheeked 
one, gabriellae, immediately to the southward. 

The series from Chapa, which is fairly well inland, includes only 
two wholly black examples, both apparently males. One of these 
is a native skin without skull and the other had only preliminary 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

examination before being withdrawn by Delacour for mounting and 
exhibit at the French Colonial Exposition. The remainder are young 
and females in the buff phase quite indistinguishable from leucogenys. 
Their very bright, golden buff color is evidently somewhat different 
from the silvery gray shown by the female from Hainan described 
and figured by Pocock (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 169-180, pi. 5, 
1905). It is possible, therefore, that they should be regarded as 
grading toward leucogenys. 

The specimen from Hoi Xuan, which is much nearer the coast, 
is jet black throughout and in thick, almost woolly pelage somewhat 
as described for the original type of the species. The locality is but 
a short distance from Phuqui where Delacour (Kloss, 1929, p. 125) 
has reported the white-cheeked form. Collector's measurements of 
this specimen are: head and body 450; hind foot 150; ear 39. 
Although it was marked female by the collector, it is probably 
an adult male. 

Hylobates concolor leucogenys Ogilby. WHITE-CHEEKED GIBBON. 

Hylobates leutogenys Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 20, 1840 "Siam." 
Hylobates henrici Pousargues, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, p. 367, 1896 

Lai Chau, Tonkin. 
Hylobates concolor leucogenys Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 738-739, 

Sept., 1927; Kloss, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 125, April, 1929 suggests 

Pak Lay, Mekong River, Laos, as type locality. 

K.-R. Lai Chau, T. 2 (ad. cT, ad. 9); Lao Fou Tchai, T. 1 
(ad. 9); Muong Moun, T. 1 (im. cf); Muong Yo, L. 2 (im. rf 1 ). 
WULSIN 1924. Phong Saly, L. 5 (3 ad. 9,2 im. d"). 
D. &L. 1929-30. Savannaket, L. 1 (<?); "Annam," 1; "Laos," 1. 

From one of the least-known gibbons, this form now becomes 
one well represented by specimens of various ages and sexes. It 
is evidently common in northwestern Tonkin and northern Laos. 
The papers of Pocock and Kloss have gradually cleared up much 
of the uncertainty in the classification of this group and it remains 
for this series, with its topotypes of "henrici," to show that name 
to be an absolute synonym of leucogenys. 

Adult males of this form are pure black with clear, white cheek- 
patches. Young males are much the same except that the white 
may be somewhat dingy and the hairs mostly have dark bases. 
A young female in the dark phase has light cheek-patches as in the 
male but they are very faintly tinged with buff and the black of the 
body shows a slight grayish mixture on the lower back and rump. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 201 

Adult females are very handsome animals with long full pelage, 
colored rich, golden, ochraceous buff, usually paler on the back and 
richer on the sides and limbs. In the change from the dark to the 
light phase the black appears to be retained longest on the breast, 
except of course on the crown, where it is permanent. 

The changes in color which take place with growth in these 
gibbons are still imperfectly understood. A letter recently received 
from M. Delacour makes the following interesting contribution. 
"A male Hylobates concolor here [Cleres, Seine Inferieure, France] 
since 1926 and about nine years old, suddenly turned gray this year. 
He is the gray of, say, a silver rabbit, with head, hands, and a point 
on the back black. Another one in Paris, about six years old, but 
of the leucogenys race, is also alike. I never saw one like them at 
liberty." 

Hylobates concolor gabriellae Thomas. BUFF-CHEEKED GIBBON. 

Hylobates gabriellae Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 4, p. 112, 1909 

Langbian, Annam. 
Hylobates concolor gabriellae Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 740, 1927; 

Kloss, ibid., p. 125, 1929. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 2 ( 9 ). 

The identity of these females is substantiated by Delacour's 
statement (in litt.) that a male seen in captivity in Thateng had 
the yellowish or buffy cheeks characteristic of gabriellae. 

Pygathrix nemaea Linnaeus. Douc LANGUR. 

Simia nemaeus Linnaeus, Mant. Plant., p. 521, 1771 Cochin China. 
Pygathrix nemaeus Elliot, Rev. Primates, 3, p. 98, 1912; Thomas, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., p. 127, footnote, 1911. 

REC. 1925-29. Col des Nuages, A. 2; Nape", L. 3. 

Although long known, this handsome monkey is seldom seen in 
collections. It is not represented in the most recent accessions from 
Indo-China. For the present, the generic separation of this species 
and its close ally nigripes from other langurs as proposed by Thomas 
may be accepted as a matter of convenience although it is evident 
that further study is needed. 

Pygathrix nigripes Milne-Edwards. BLACK-FOOTED Douc. 

Semnopithecus nigripes Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
6, p. 7, 1871 Saigon, Cochin China. 

REC. 1925-29. Djiring, A. 6. 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Not represented in the most recent collections. The question 
of the specific or subspecific relationship between this form and 
nemaea and the status of Presbytis nemaeus moi Kloss have been 
discussed by Thomas (1928) and without further material nothing 
can be added. 

Pithecus germaini Milne-Edwards. GERMAIN'S LANGUR. 

Semnopithecus Germani Milne-Edwards, Bull. Soc. Philom., (6), 11, p. 8, 

1876 Cochin China and Cambodia. 
Presbytis margarita Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 4, p. 271, 1909 

Langbian, Annam. 

D. & L. 1929-30.? Lao Bao, A. 4. 
REC. 1925-28. Cochin China, 3. 

Four skins without skulls are in the collection obtained by the 
botanist Poilane. That these came from Lao Bao in central Annam, 
as stated on the labels, is doubtful. In Lowe's field catalogue, they 
were originally entered as from Memos, Cambodia, but this was 
later lined out and overwritten Lao Bao, Annam. 

Pocock (Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 32, p. 667, 1928) has 
suggested that this species is only a local representative of the 
pyrrhus series directly connected with crepusculus through the 
supposed form called margarita. After examination of the type of 
margarita, I find it difficult to accept this conclusion. This type 
is slightly grayer and softer-coated than most specimens of germaini, 
but it is essentially the same animal and quite distinct from crepus- 
culus. Possibly a very slight subspecies of germaini may be differen- 
tiated on the Langbian Plateau, but until it is represented by more 
than the single type specimen of margarita, that name is best treated 
as a synonym. 

Pithecus pyrrhus argenteus Kloss. SILVERY LANGUR. 

Presbytis argenteus Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 3, pp. 338-340, 1919 
Lat Bua Kao, 40 miles west of Korat, east-central Siam. 

K.-R. Muong Mo, T. 1; Muong Yo, L. 4; Namu River between 
Muong Ngoi and Luang Prabang, L. 1. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Hoi Xuan, A. 3. 
DEL. 1931-32. Banphone, L. 2. 
REC. 1925-29. Phuqui, A. 3; Sambor, C. 3; Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

This is the palest of the pyrrhus series, the general color silvery 
gray with little or no tinge of brownish. It is most similar to P. p. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 203 

crepusculus of Tenasserim, but the color is paler, near the Smoke 
Gray of Ridgway. It is a slight form occupying northern and eastern 
Siam, northern Laos, and adjoining parts of Tonkin. A considerable 
series from various parts of this region has the common character 
of paleness as compared with any of the western forms occupying 
the region from northern Burma to Tenasserim and southwestern 
Siam. 

In his recent study of the group, Pocock (Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. 
Soc., 32, pp. 667-675, 1928) followed the conservative course of 
referring several of the pale specimens of this form to crepusculus. 
With considerable additional material, I have reexamined all the 
specimens of the pyrrhus group in the British Museum with the 
very courteous cooperation of Mr. Pocock, and it now seems that 
the facts are best represented by the segregation of the northeastern 
material under a separate name. This apparently should be argenteus 
of Kloss which seems not to have been considered by Pocock. 

If regarded as a linear series, running from dark color to light, 
the group is found to have barbei at one extreme and argenteus at 
the other, leaving phayrei, shanicus, and crepusculus as more or less 
definite stages between the two. Beginning with barbei in Upper 
Burma, we have a form with very dark brown upper parts and 
whitish, contrasted under parts; next is phayrei, as represented by 
upper Chindwin specimens, which is lighter brown, but still with 
sharply contrasted under parts; then shanicus with under parts less 
contrasted; then crepusculus, which is only slightly less brown than 
shanicus but has less contrasted under parts and lighter tail and 
legs; finally argenteus, grayish throughout including the under parts, 
which merge insensibly with the upper parts. 

The type of crepusculus from Mount Mooleyit, Tenasserim, is 
a distinctly brownish specimen as compared with argenteus and is, 
in fact, only a shade lighter than shanicus, although it has a more 
grayish tail and less contrasted under parts. It stands in a somewhat 
intermediate position not only between argenteus and the brown 
forms of Burma, but it perhaps also connects with the darker ones 
(flavicauda and atrior} of south Tenasserim. The type of wroughtoni 
from "Pachebun" ( = Petchaburi), Siam, unquestionably falls with 
crepusculus and, as noted by Pocock, is a "brownish specimen." 

The name argenteus is unfortunate on account of the earlier 
Semnopithecus argentatus (Horsfield, Cat. Mamm. East India Co., 
p. 7, 1851). In a descriptive sense, however, it is most appropriate. 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 
Pithecus poliocephalus Trouessart. GRAY-HEADED LANGUR. 

Semnopithecus (Lophopithecus) poliocephalus Trouessart, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (8), 8, pp. 271-272, pi. 7, Aug., 1911 Kai-Chin, northeastern 
Tonkin. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Cac Ba Island, Bay of Along, T. 6. 
REC. 1925-29. Hanoi Zoological Garden, T. 1. 

Among the most valuable specimens obtained by Delacour and 
Lowe in 1930 are six well-prepared examples of this fine species, 
heretofore known only from the type in the Paris Museum and one 
zoological park specimen in the British Museum. They bear out 
the characters previously noted and figured. As indicated by the 
skulls, which differ only in minor characters, the species is obviously 
related only to P. francoisi, P. laotum, and P. delacouri, but it differs 
from any of these more than they do from each other. Its pelage 
is slightly coarser, the hairs of the back and sides are much longer, 
and the tail is not so heavily haired. Hence, while intergradation 
between the others is perhaps not unlikely, it is probable that 
poliocephaltLS is fully distinct. It is possible that it is confined to 
the islands of the Bay of Along, since northeastern Tonkin, from 
which the type was supposed to come, is in the region inhabited by 
francoisi. 

In Lowe's field catalogue, the following note occurs regarding 
this species. "A curious weak and feeble sort of monkey, feeding 
on leaves of small bushes. When in danger, it takes refuge in large 
holes in the limestone hills on which it lives. It is tame, lives in 
small lots of eight to fifteen, and is very sociable. They are often 
seen all huddled together on the rocks. Its coloration is decidedly 
protective, if it has any enemies." 

Pithecus francoisi Pousargues. TONKIN LANGUR. 

Semnopithecus Francoisi Pousargues, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, p. 319, 
1898 Long Tcheou, Kwangsi, China. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 1; Langson, T. 2; "Tonkin," 1. 

Not obtained by the Kelley-Roosevelts or Delacour and Lowe 
expeditions. 

Pithecus laotum Thomas. LAOS LANGUR. 

Pithecus laotum Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 181, Feb., 1921 
Ba Na Sao, Mekong River, Laos. 

Although the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition passed through the 
region inhabited by this rare monkey, they failed to secure it. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 205 

Pithecus delacouri sp. nov. DELACOUR'S WHITE-BACKED LANGUR 
(Plate X, facing p. 208). 

Type from Hoi Xuan, northeastern Annam. No. 32.4.19.2. 
British Museum. Adult male. Collected Feb. 15, 1930, by J. 
Delacour and Willoughby Lowe. Orig. No. 1,878. 

Diagnosis. Allied to P. francoisi and P. laotum, but differing 
strikingly from both in having the rump and outer side of the thighs 
pure creamy white; white markings on head more restricted than 
in laotum, but more extensive than in francoisi. Fur soft and thick; 
mantle not highly developed; tail heavily haired throughout, indi- 
vidual hairs reaching a length of about 50 mm. 

Color. Body, arms, lower legs, and tail shining glossy black; 
lower back and rump with about two-thirds of the proximal part 
of the outer sides of the thighs pure creamy white with sharply 
defined boundaries between it and the adjoining black areas; head 
mainly black with a white patch behind each ear and a narrow grayish 
white line from the anterior base of the ear to the angle of the mouth; 
sides of neck and elongated hairs on cheeks dark sooty grayish; back 
of neck slightly tinged with brownish. 

Skutt. Essentially as in francoisi and laotum, possibly a trifle 
larger. 

Measurements. Adult male and female measured by the collector: 
total length 1,400, 1,410; head and body 580, 570; tail 820, 840; 
hind foot 183, ; ear 40, 43. Skull of type: basal length 98.4; 
palatal length 35.4; postorbital constriction 49.3; zygomatic width 
87; width of braincase 65; orbital width 69.3; upper toothrow to 
front of canine 36.8; without canine 28.9. 

Remarks. The discovery of this handsome monkey is one of 
the conspicuous results of Delacour's expedition of 1930. It is most 
appropriate, therefore, to have it bear his name. 

The species belongs to the restricted group which includes 
poliocephalus, francoisi, and laotum. These in turn evidently are 
related to P. potenziani of the West Sumatran Mentawi Islands, 
a very distinct species not heretofore closely associated with any 
other. Although it differs strikingly in its pure white rump and 
thighs, delacouri seems otherwise to stand somewhat between fran- 
coisi and laotum, both of which are as yet represented in collections 
by very few specimens. Each stands out at present as well distin- 
guished, but it is not difficult to believe that intergrades between 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

the three may be found later. In any case it is probable that they 
are quite local in distribution. P. poliocephalus may well be quite 
distinct, notwithstanding its superficial white on the rump and 
thighs suggesting that of delacouri, for its almost wholly light-colored 
head and its slender, short-haired tail set it apart. 

Similar habits are reported for all these forms, all being some- 
what terrestrial and rock-loving despite their long tails. 
A convenient key for distinguishing them is as follows: 
Rump and thighs pure black. 

Head mainly black with a white stripe on lower cheeks and 

around ear francoisi. 

Head mainly white with a black crest and narrow frontal 

line N laotum. 

Rump and thighs partly or wholly white or buffy. 

Entire head and nape light golden buffy poliocephalus. 

Top of head black with white behind ears and on cheeks. 

delacouri. 

Pithecus sp.? 

Among the mammals collected by F. R. Wulsin for the United 
States National Museum is a skin with skull of a wholly black 
langur labeled simply "French Indo-China." It is possible that 
this may represent still another form of the series including potenziani, 
laotum, francoisi, etc., but since it has no exact locality and since 
it is not supported by other specimens from the region, it seems best 
to leave its specific determination until better material may be 
available. The black langur of Java (P. auratus or maurus), which 
appears to be the only known species described as entirely black, 
has not been examined in this connection. 

Rhinopithecus roxellanae Milne-Edwards. GOLDEN MONKEY. 

Semnopithecus Roxellanae Milne-Edwards, Comptes Rendus, Paris, 70, p. 

341, 1870 Mouping, Szechwan, China. 
Rhinopithecus roxellanae Milne-Edwards, Rech. Mamm., p. 233, pis. 36, 37, 

1870-75; De Winton, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 572, pi. 31, 1889. 

K.-R. Mountains near Mouping at altitude 7,500 feet, 
Szechwan, China, 10. 

One fine adult male, various partly grown animals of both sexes, 
and two very small young, perhaps but a few days old, are in this 
series. As in the specimen described and figured by De Winton 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 207 

(I.e.), the adult is more extensively ochraceous on the forehead and 
cheeks than in the original figure of Milne-Edwards. The hands 
also are bright-colored, but the color of the back and sides agrees 
more nearly with the figure of Milne-Edwards than with that of 
De Winton. 

The newly born young, the coloration of which is doubtless 
undescribed, has thick, soft, and crenulate pelage, with the ears 
heavily tufted, but there is no indication of the color markings of 
the adult. Head, body, and legs Light Buff, the hairs of the head 
and back heavily tipped with deep brown slightly darker than 
Mummy Brown, the outer sides of the arms heavily and of the legs 
lightly washed with brownish drab; under parts and inner sides of 
arms and legs Light Buff without tipping; tail brownish drab, the 
hairs with light bases in its proximal half. 

In partly grown specimens the head remains light-colored with 
dark-tipped hairs while the back soon acquires hairs with dark bases 
and broad, light, buffy tips. The rich ochraceous hues do not appear 
until late, at least not until the second and perhaps not until the 
third year. 

The habits of these monkeys are very little known and about 
all that can be said is that they inhabit dense mountain forests. 
Evidence of this is found in the account of the taking of these speci- 
mens by Theodore Roosevelt from which the following may be 
quoted. 1 

"The undergrowth was dense a tangle of vines and dead wood. 
The slope was steep. Soon we were in a bamboo jungle where the 
dust from dried leaves choked us as we gasped for breath. For 
better than an hour we stumbled upward without seeing a thing. 
Then we reached a razor-backed ridge down which we threaded our 
way, peering from side to side through blanket-like foliage. 

"It seemed an almost hopeless mission when a native suddenly 
shrieked with excitement and pointed toward the tree-tops. We 
could see nothing but started scrambling ahead. Kermit was in 
front. When my eye caught motion among some branches to the 
right, I stopped and a second later glimpsed a yellow shape. It 
was impossible to get a shot with a rest, as the jungle was neck-high, 
so I whipped up my rifle and fired offhand. I was in luck, for the 
monkey fell crashing through the branches. It was a splendid dog- 
ape, with a mane of long, grayish-yellow hair down its back and the 

trailing the Giant Panda, Scribner's, New York, pp. 172-173, 1929. 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

most brilliant orange on its belly. It was as big as an eight-year-old 
child. A second later I saw another and brought it down with two 
shots. Then Kermit started shooting just beyond me, and for a 
few minutes it sounded like a miniature battle as we fired at half-seen 
shapes flitting through the tree-tops." 

Presbytiscus avunculus Dollman. TONKIN SNUB-NOSED MONKEY. 

Rhinopithecus avunculus Dollman, Abstr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., No. 106, 
p. 18, Mar. 26, 1912; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 503, June, 1912 Yen-bay, 
Songkoi River, Tonkin. 

Presbytiscus avunculus Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 300, Mar., 1924. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 12. 

Although Delacour and Lowe obtained a fine series of twelve 
specimens of this monkey at Backan, Tonkin, in 1925-26 (Thomas, 
1928, p. 140), it is not represented in subsequent collections, and 
is otherwise known only from the type and one immature paratype. 

Macaca irus F. Cuvier. CRAB-EATING MACAQUE. 

Macacus irus F. Cuvier, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 4, p. 120, 1818; Cabrera, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 6, p. 620, 1910 Sumatra. 

K.-R. Saigon, C.C. 1. 

A single specimen of the usual coloration with grayish feet was 
obtained at Saigon by Theodore Roosevelt. 

Macaca mulatta Zimmermann. RHESUS MACAQUE. 

Cercopithecus mulatta Zimmermann, Geog. Gesch. Mensch., 2, p. 195, 1780 

based on Pennant's "Tawny Monkey" from India. 
Inuus sancti-johannis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 555, 1866 North 

Lena Island, Hongkong, China. 
Pithecus littoralis Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 4, p. 250, 1909 Kuatun, 

Fukien, China. 

Pithecus brachyurus Elliot, supra cit., p. 251 island of Hainan, China. 
Pithecus brevicaudus Elliot, Rev. Primates, 2, p. 216, 1912 substitute for 

P. brachyurus, preoccupied. 
Macaca siamica Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 2, p. 247, May, 1917 

Me Ping rapids below Chiengmai, Siam. 
Macaca mulatta Hinton and Wroughton, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 27, 

p. 668, July 31, 1921; G. M. Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 429, pp. 1-3, 

1930. 

K.-R. Muong Bourn, T. 1; Muong Moun, T. 1; Nam Yu, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Phuqui, A. 4. 

WULSIN 1924. Mekong River, L. 1; Vientiane, L. 2. 



Field Museum of Natural History Zoology, Vol. XVIII, Plate X 




DELACOUH'S LANGUR (Pilhecus delacouri sp. nov.) 
Type specimen 



E 

OF THE 
iTY Qf 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 209 

Comparison of the above material with specimens from northern 
India (Nepal and Kumaon) in the British Museum reveals no 
appreciable differences in color. The type of Elliot's littoralis was 
also examined in this connection with the same result, thus confirming 
the recent conclusion of Allen (supra cit.) that both littoralis and 
sancti-johannis are synonyms of mulatto,. The same author finds 
brevicaudus Elliot of Hainan indistinguishable and gives little or 
no encouragement for the recognition of any of the names tcheliensis, 
lasiotus, and vestitus which, therefore, are much better in synonymy 
than elsewhere, at least until they can be fully defined on the basis 
of adequate material. M. siamica of northern Siam also belongs 
in this series and, until distinguishing characters are adduced for 
it, must be regarded as unrecognizable. 1 

Macaca assamensis coolidgei subsp. nov. COOLIDGE'S MACAQUE. 

Type from Hoi Xuan, Annam. No. 32.4.19.1. British Museum. 
Adult male. Collected Jan. 19, 1930, by J. Delacour and W. Lowe. 
Orig. No. 1,824. 

Diagnosis. Similar to M. assamensis, but tail decidedly shorter 
and coloration more grayish, especially on the arms and legs. 

Color. General color of body, shoulders, back, and rump Cinna- 
mon Brown, brightest on shoulders and nape, the hairs dark Hair 
Brown basally and indistinctly annulated Cinnamon Brown and 
dusky apically; arms, legs and tail decidedly grayish in contrast to 
body color, the hairs pale Mouse Gray basally and slightly grizzled 
Hair Brown superficially; under parts and inner sides of arms and 
legs soiled whitish, the hairs self-colored. 

Skull. Essentially as in assamensis, possibly a little larger with 
slightly heavier dentition. 

Measurements. Type, measured by collectors: total length 805 
(888, 900) ; 2 head and body 575 (560, 580); tail 230 (328, 320); hind 
foot 173 (168, 168). Adult male from Chapa, Tonkin: total length 
815; head and body 600; tail 215; hind foot 167. Skull of type: 
condylo-basilar length 103; zygomatic width 95.8; width of brain- 

1 Since this was written a revision of the group by Pocock has appeared (Jour. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 35, pp. 530-551, 1932) in which brevicaudus and siamica 
are disposed as synonyms of mulatta, sancti-johannis is recognized with littoralis 
as synonym, and tcheliensis and lasiotus are also recognized as slight subspecies 
of mulatta. 

2 Measurements in parentheses are those of two typical assamensis from 
Darjeeling and Sikkim measured by the collector, C. A. Crump. 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

case 66.5; postorbital constriction 43.2; width across orbits 75.3; 
condyle to back of molars 54.5; upper toothrow including canine 
50.3; molar series 27; basal length of canine 11.7. 

Remarks. The tail in this form is so much shorter than in typical 
assamensis that this character is readily apparent in the comparison 
of specimens without recourse to exact measurements. The grayish 
color of the limbs in contrast to the body also is very obvious. In 
other respects there is every evidence of close relationship to 
assamensis rather than to any other macaque. In fact, a single 
specimen from Muong Moun in northwestern Tonkin, although 
doubtless referable to coolidgei, may perhaps be regarded as tending 
slightly toward assamensis, the limbs being less grayish and the 
tail a little longer than in the series from eastern Tonkin. 

Such variation as appears in the series of nine specimens from 
Chapa is away from assamensis rather than toward it; that is, it 
consists in extension of the grayish from the legs to the body rather 
than vice versa. In one specimen the entire upper parts behind the 
shoulders are sooty grayish without contrast with the legs. The 
skull of this specimen is also somewhat peculiar with a narrow 
basioccipital, small triangular nares, and weak molars; but material 
is not sufficient to determine what this may signify. 

On the label of the type specimen the collector has made the 
following notation. "Bare skin of body and everywhere beneath 
fur pale blue, except region around sex organs and lower belly 
white; face and muzzle dark brown; forehead bluish flesh as low 
as half way across center of eyes; hands and feet brownish flesh." 

Although the specimen selected as type was not collected by him, 
I have taken the opportunity to name it for Harold J. Coolidge, Jr., 
who was the leader of the Indo-Chinese section of the Kelley- 
Roosevelts Expedition and who is especially interested in the 
Primates. 

Specimens examined. Total 11, from the following localities: 
Chapa, T. 9 (D. & L.); Hoi Xuan, A. 1 (D. & L.); Muong Moun, 
T. 1 (K.-R.). 

Macaca (Lyssodes) speciosa F. Cuvier. STUMP-TAILED MACAQUE. 

Macacus speciosus F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., pi. 47, 1825 no locality. 

Pithecus speciosus Elliot, Rev. Primates, 2, pp. 190-193, 1912 "Burma and 
Cochin China, etc." 

Macacus arctoides Geoffroy and various authors. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 211 

Macacus harmandi Trouessart, Le Natural., p. 10, 1897 mountains between 
Cambodia and Siam. 

Lyssodes speciosus Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 1497, 1571, 1926 
Burma. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 2. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 3. 
REC. 1925-29. Col des Nuages, A. 1. 

The stump-tailed macaques of Tonkin, especially those from 
Chapa, are in general less reddish brown than those from north- 
eastern India (Naga Hills) and Tenasserim, but seem best referred 
to speciosa, at least until definite localities are fixed for several 
names in the group. An adult male from Muong Moun is decidedly 
browner than examples from Chapa and also differs in having the 
top and sides of the head distinctly grizzled, but without more 
material than is at hand as this is written, any attempt at separation 
is scarcely justified. Comparison also has been made with the type 
of Pithecus pullus Howell, of Fukien, which as shown by G. M. Allen 
(Am. Mus. Novit., No. 429, pp. 3-4, 1930) is a synonym of M. s. 
melli Matschie. Material in hand differs from this type in less 
brownish and less uniform coloration, the hairs mostly having some 
degree of annulation. The distinctions between speciosa and rufescens 
Anderson, both so far without definite localities, apparently need 
clarification. If these should prove to be the same, a form from 
northern Siam and Tonkin might be recognized under the name 
harmandi. 

As to the use of the name speciosa instead of arctoides, about 
which there has been some question, I am much inclined to agree 
with Elliot and Pocock. At the time speciosa was published it was 
by no means unidentifiable from the contemporary standpoint. As 
the earliest name for one of several forms in a restricted group, it 
should by all means be applied to one of them. The rejection of 
such names tends to loose nomenclatural practice in which individual 
opinion is given rein far beyond what is desirable. Although no 
code has done so, it would be quite possible to formulate a rule 
which would cover cases of this kind and contribute to uniformity 
of usage. 

Nycticebus bengalensis cinereus Milne-Edwards. ASHY SLOW 
LEMUR. 

Nyclicebus cinereus Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus., Bull., 3, p. 11, pi. 3, 
1867 Siam and Cochin China. 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Nycticebus cinereus Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 31, p. 532, 1906 Bangkok, 

Siam, suggested as type locality. 
Nycticebus cinereus Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 2, p. 77, 1906; ibid., 

p. 289, 1917 specimens from Koh Lak, Siam. 

Nycticebus coucang cinereus Kloss, supra cit., 3, p. 51, 1918 Wang Pong, Siam. 
Nycticebus bengalensis Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 43, 1927. 
K.-R. Vientiane, L. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Near Hue, A. 1; Lao Bao, A. 1. 
DEL. 1931-32. Pakse, L. 1; Thateng, L. 1. 
REC. 1925-29. Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

A fine adult male was obtained by R. E. Wheeler at Vientiane. 
In this specimen the usual "frosting" on the posterior half of the body 
has been worn away, leaving this part a bright and nearly clear 
Russet. This tone is carried with lighter mixture down the hind 
legs and over the proximal part of the fore legs whence it extends 
across the under parts, thus pervading the entire animal except on 
the head, throat, forearms and feet. The same pervading color- 
tone is seen in the specimen from Xieng Kuang, referred by Thomas 
to bengalensis (1927, p. 43), and also in an incomplete skin in the 
British Museum from the vicinity of Raheng, Siam, this last from 
the type region of cinereus. In two specimens from the Naga Hills, 
Assam, representing bengalensis (Thomas, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. 
Soc., 28, p. 433, 1922) the prevailing tone of color is cinnamon rather 
than russet, which gives the general effect of a much duller-colored 
animal. Therefore it may be possible to recognize cinereus as a 
subspecies of bengalensis occupying Siam and southern Laos. Aside 
from this slight color difference, there appears to be little or no 
distinction. 

A cotype of N. cinereus is in the British Museum, but the skin, 
having been exposed as a mounted specimen, does not offer color 
characters except as to distribution of markings. There is evidence 
of a dark marking at the upper anterior base of the ear and another 
above the eye, but neither is definitely connected with the median 
dark line which reaches the occiput. No attempt has been made to 
determine the relationships of N. tenasserimensis Elliot 1913 and 
N. incanus Thomas 1921 (Lower Pegu, Burma), both of which may 
be subspecies of bengalensis. 

Nycticebus pygmaeus Bonhote. PIGMY SLOW LEMUR. 

Nycticebus pygmaeus Bonhote, Abstr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 2, 
Jan. 22, 1907; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 4-5, figs. 1, 2 (skull), pi. 2 (col.), 
1907 Nhatrang, Annam. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 213 

K.-R. Lai Chau, T. 1; Phong Saly, L. 1; Saigon, C.C. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hoi Xuan, A. 1; Lung Lunh, A. 1; Then Loa, 
A. 1; Thy-ba, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Hue, A. 1; Kontoum, A. 2; Phuqui, A. 1; Thai 
Nien, T. 1. 

This very distinct species is now shown to range from Cochin 
China northward through Annam to southern Laos. In most of this 
region it seems to occupy territory from which the larger bengalensis 
type is excluded, but both have been recorded from Hue, and it is 
evident that their ranges overlap in Laos. The small size and rela- 
tively uniform color are sufficient for ready recognition of the species 
without recourse to other pronounced characters. However, the 
statement in the original description that there is "no sign of any 
dark line down the back" does not hold and, as noted by Thomas, 
it is probable that the color of the type was somewhat altered by 
preservative. In recent specimens, especially those in which the 
superficial "frosting" is worn away, a dark line, Russet to Mars 
Brown in color, runs from the shoulders to the lumbar region and 
is well distinguished from the surrounding Tawny. Except for the 
absence of any indication of this line, the colored figure published 
with the original description is a good representation of the animal. 

Rousettus leschenaulti Desmarest. LESCHENAULT'S FRUIT BAT. 

Pteropus leschenaulti Desmarest, Encycl. Meth., Mamm., 1, p. 110, 1820 
Pondicherry, northern India. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 1. 

This bat is known from Nepal to southern China (Amoy). 
Therefore, the above record, although apparently the only one from 
Indo-China, has no especial significance. 

Pteropus vampyrus malaccensis Andersen. MALACCA FRUIT BAT. 

Pteropus vampyrus malaccensis Andersen, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 2, p. 
368, Oct., 1908 Kuala Tembeling, Pahang, Malay Peninsula. 

REC. 1925-29. Hug, A. 2; Phuquoc Island, C. 3. 

These are the easternmost records of this typically Malayan bat. 
It is not represented in the most recent collections. 

Cynopterus sphinx Vahl. SPHINX FRUIT BAT. 

VespertUio sphinx Vahl, Skr. Nat. Selsk., 4, Heft 1, p. 123, 1797 Tranquebar, 
India. 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

K.-R. Muong Mo, T. 11; Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 1. 
REC. 1925-29. Hu, A. 2; Kontoum, A. 1; Siem Reap, C. 1; 
Tay Ninh, C.C. 7. 

These include the most northeastern records for the species, 
which is mainly Indian and East Indian. All the Tonkin specimens 
are in the dark color phase and average large in size, the forearm 
being 70 or more. The Phouc Mon specimen is smaller with a 
forearm of 66. 

Megaerops ecaudatus Temminck. 

Pachysoma eeaudatum Temminck, Monog. Mamm., 2, p. 94, 1837 Padang, 
Malay Peninsula. 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 3. 

Although long known, this bat is still very rare and the specimens 
recorded by Thomas (1927, p. 44) from Annam are not only the first 
for Indo-China, but are among the very few examples preserved in 
museums. 

Eonycteris spelaea Dobson. 

Macroglossus spelaeus Dobson, Proc. As. Soc. Beng., pp. 105-106, May, 
1871; Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 40, p. 261, pi. 10, figs. 3, 4, June, 1871 Farm 
Caves, Moulmein, Lower Burma. 

K.-R. Pa Ham, south of Lai Chau, T. 6. 
DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 8. 

The Tonkin record is the northernmost for the species, the type 
being from Moulmein and others from Siam and Malaysia. 

Rhinolophus lepidus subsp.? 

K.-R. Nguluko, Yunnan 3 (sk.), 8 (ale.). 

These bats were taken at the same time and place as those 
referred to R. affinis tener (p. 216) and like them do not seem referable 
to any species previously recorded from China. Apparently they 
are closely related to the series which includes lepidus (Indian Pen- 
insula), monticola (Masuri, Punjab), refulgens (Malay Peninsula), 
and shortridgei (Upper Burma). As judged by descriptions, they 
do not agree exactly with any of these, but for the present it does 
not seem advisable to add further names, since the material repre- 
senting those already given is limited and their geographic ranges 
cannot be determined with any certainty. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 215 

The forearm in the present series is unusually long for a bat of 
such small bodily size. It varies from 42.5 to 45.5 although the 
skulls are no larger than in bats having a much shorter forearm. 
The skulls are slightly smaller and have a shorter toothrow than in 
lepidus and shortridgei, but they do not especially approach szech- 
wanus in which the skull is not only smaller but differs in the shorter 
palatal bridge. Specimens from Suifu, Szechwan, doubtfully referred 
by Howell (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 75, p. 12, 1929) to szeckwanus 
are said to have the forearm averaging 41.8 and perhaps may belong 
to the form under consideration. Measurements of one of the skulls 
from Nguluko are as follows: condyle to front of canine 14.5; zygo- 
matic width 7.6; mastoid width 8.1; interorbital constriction 2.4; 
width of nasal swellings 4.2; length of bony palate (palatal bridge) 
3; upper toothrow to front of canine 5.8. 

Rhinolophus blythi calidus Allen. 

Rhinolophus blythi calidus Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No, 85, p. 1, Aug. 28, 
1923 Yenping, Fukien, China. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 1 (sk.). 
REC. 1925-29. Tay Ninh, C.C. 5. 

Among the large number of Rhinolophi collected in Tonkin, only 
one specimen seems referable to the so-called "pusillus series." This 
agrees in color, size, and cranial characters with material from 
Fukien representing R. b. calidus. Specimens from Cochin China 
referred to pusillus (R. minor of Andersen, 1905) by Thomas are 
doubtless closely related if not identical. In 1905, Andersen gave 
Java, Siam, and Darjeeling as the range of R. minor ( = pusillus), 
but in 1918, when he named blythi and szechwanus, he had evidently 
concluded the mainland forms to be separable. The distinctions are 
not very clear at present and it might be preferable, at least until 
suitable material from Java is obtained, to regard all the forms as 
races of pusillus. However this may be, the Tonkin specimen agrees 
with calidus, and that name may be used as proposed by Allen. 

Rhinolophus blythi szechwanus Andersen. 

Rhinolophus b. szechwanus Andersen, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 2, pp. 376- 
377, Oct., 1918 Chungking, Szechwan, China. 

Herbert Stevens made considerable collections within the 
range of this form, but failed to obtain it. The opportunity may 
be taken, however, to record the measurements of the type speci- 
men which were not specifically given with the original description. 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

These measurements were very carefully taken, transcribed and 
forwarded by Miss Jane St. Leger to whom grateful acknowledgment 
is made. They are as follows: head and body 36; tail 18; foot 6; 
ear 14 (from collector's label). Forearm 38.9; lower leg without 
foot 16 (from dried skin). Skull: total length occiput to anterior 
base of canine 15; basion to gnathion 12.3; zygomatic width 7.2; 
antorbital width 5; interorbital constriction 2.1; width of braincase 
7.5; width between canines 1.8; length of bony palate (palatal bridge) 
2; width of palate 3; upper toothrow to front of canine 5.6. 

Rhinolophus affinis macrurus Andersen. 

Rhinolophus affinis macrurus Andersen, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 103, 1905 
Taho, Karennee, Burma. 

K.-R. Muong Bourn, T. 1; Muong Moun, south of Lai Chau, 
T. 8 (sk.), 3 (ale.). 

REC. 1925-29. Langson, T. 5 (as R. affinis). 

A topotype of R. a. macrurus loaned by the United States National 
Museum shows detailed agreement with the material from Tonkin. 
Comparison with specimens in the British Museum representing 
himalayanus indicates only slight average difference in size and the 
distinction of two forms is rather difficult. 

The length of the forearm (51.5-54) serves to distinguish this 
bat from all the other Rhinolophi of the region except R. pearsoni, 
which has somewhat longer, more "woolly" pelage. A convenient 
distinction between the skulls is found in the bony palatal bridge 
which is decidedly longer in pearsoni (about 3.8) than in macrurus 
(about 2.3). 

Specimens from the island of Hainan representing R. hainanus 
(J. A. Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 22, p. 482, 1906) seem quite 
indistinguishable from macrurus. 

Rhinolophus affinis tener Andersen. 

Rhinolophus affinis tener Andersen, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 103, pi. 3, 
fig. 12, 1905 Pegu, Lower Burma. 

K.-R. Nguluko, Yunnan 10 (sk.), 18 (ale.). 

Horseshoe bats of the affinis type have not been recorded 
heretofore from China and the considerable distance in latitude and 
climatic conditions between Yunnan and Lower Burma leads to some 
doubt that the form called tener is quite the one under consideration. 
The above-mentioned series, however, agrees in most particulars 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 217 

with the description of tener and, in the present state of knowledge, 
it seems the part of conservatism to add no further names to a group 
already overburdened. Moreover, the type of tener appears to be 
the only known specimen and it cannot be assumed that others 
from the same region would not show some variation in dimensions. 

The Yunnan specimens disagree with the description of tener in 
having somewhat smaller teeth and longer metacarpals. The fore- 
arm also is longer, but with only one specimen of typical tener 
considered, this seems unimportant. 

The forearms are nearly or quite as long (51-53.5) as in R. a. 
macrurus, but the skulls are very much smaller and scarcely exceed 
those of R. rouxi to which they show very great general similarity. 
Relationship to rouxi, however, is excluded by the long second 
phalanx of the third digit and by other characters. 

Measurements of a Yunnan specimen compared with those of 
the type of tener (in parentheses) are as follows: forearm 52.8 (50); 
third metacarpal 38.6 (35.8); first phalanx 16.6 (14.3); second 
phalanx 25.6 (25); fourth metacarpal 41.1 (37.1); first phalanx 11.6 
(10); second phalanx 15.9 (14.3); fifth metacarpal 43 (38); first 
phalanx 14.3 (11.8); second phalanx 10.7 (13.3); tail 24 (23); lower 
leg 21.3 (23); foot 10.3 (12). Skull: total length 21 (21.9); width of 
braincase 9.3 (9); zygomatic width 10.5 (10.5); supraorbital length 
5.3 (5.2); width of nasal swellings 5.3 (5.7); upper teeth excluding 
incisors 7.8 (8.7); lower teeth 8.8 (9.2). 

Rhinolophus pearsoni chinensis Andersen. 

Rhinolophus Pearsoni chinensis Andersen, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 16, 
p. 289, Sept., 1905 Kuatun, Fukien, China. 

K.-R. Chapa, T. 2; Muong Mo, T. 1; Muong Moun, T. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 1 (ale.). 

Since they agree in having a short tibia (25.5-26.5), these bats 
are doubtless best referred to chinensis, although in other characters 
they differ but little or not at all from typical pearsoni. The status 
of R. yunnanensis from Hotha, Yunnan, is still uncertain and speci- 
mens from that region, as well as series from Fukien, would be 
welcome. The name chinensis was based on a single specimen and, 
later, one other from southern Burma was referred to it by Andersen 
(Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Gen., (3), 3, p. 477, Oct., 1907). 

Rhinolophus subbadius Blyth. 

Rhinolophus subbadius Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 13, part 1, No. 150, p. 
486, 1844 Nepal. 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 3 (sk.), 2 (ale.). 

These appear to include the only extant modern skins and skulls 
of this rare bat, smallest member of the genus Rhinolophus. The 
type, from Nepal, is reputed to be in the Indian Museum at Calcutta, 
but has had no recent examination. The type of R. garoensis from 
the Garo Hills is also in the same museum. In 1905 (Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., p. 129, 1905) Andersen placed garoensis as a synonym 
of subbadius, apparently with good reason, but in 1918, without 
explanation, he dropped subbadius and used only garoensis. Evidence 
for this change may have been published, but it has not come to 
my notice, and I continue to use subbadius. 

The specimens in hand are rather bright-colored, the hairs with 
light bases and cinnamon tips. The under parts are paler anteriorly 
and more like the back posteriorly and laterally. Measurements 
of a specimen taken by R. E. Wheeler are: total length 46; tail 11; 
hind foot 7. The forearm in the dry skin measures 32.7 ; lower leg 13 ; 
ear from meatus 10.2; width of tragus 4. Measurements of the skull 
are as follows: length to canine 14.4; mastoid width 6.6; width of 
braincase 6.4; zygomatic width 6.7; width of nasal swelling 3.9; 
mandible 9; upper teeth 5.5. These measurements indicate an 
animal even smaller than that described as subbadius and garoensis. 
A single skin without skull from southern Yunnan (near Mongtze?) 
in the British Museum agrees with our specimens in size and color 
and doubtless belongs to the same species. 

Rhinolophus malayanus Bonhote. 

Rhinolophus malayanus Bonhote, Fasciculi Malayenses, Zool., 1, p. 15 (author's 
ed.), July, 1903 Biserat, Jalor, Malay States. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 13 (sk.), 1 (ale.). 

Specimens of the species represented by this series failed to be 
included among those taken to London for direct comparison with 
Andersen's material. Their identification as malayanus, therefore, 
is provisional. Among the other Rhinolophi of the collection, they 
are marked by the great contrast in the color of the upper and 
under parts. In nearly all examples there is a well-marked light 
area on the breast in which the hairs are wholly dull whitish without 
any dark tipping. There is also a tendency to the formation of a 
whitish area in the interorbital region just behind the lancet, and 
the hairy front margin of the ears is whitish. The forearms measure 
40-42. The skulls are slender, with narrow braincases, short palates 
and rather well-developed nasal swellings. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 219 

Rhinolophus sp. 

K.-R. Muong Mo, T. 3 (sk.); Muong Moun, T. 1 (sk.), 2 (ale.). 

These bats evidently belong in the series which Andersen has 
indicated as related to JR. borneensis and R. malayanus. They differ 
from malayanus (antea) in larger size, darker color, and more slender 
skulls. The forearms measure 42.5-45.8 and the total length of the 
skull averages about 19.5, with a width of braincase of 8.5. The 
color is dark cinnamon brown above and below, the light bases of 
the hairs almost wholly concealed. 

The great development of the nasal swellings shown in R. stheno 
is somewhat less in malayanus and in the present series perhaps still 
less, but in general robustness of the skull these specimens agree 
with stheno somewhat better than with malayanus. Since a form 
more nearly agreeing with malayanus is also found at the same 
locality in Tonkin, it is possible that the present one is a northern 
representative of the larger Malayan form stheno, the inflated nasals 
of the latter being a local rather than a general character. Until 
the incompleted work of Andersen on the entire genus is fully reviewed, 
however, conclusions of this sort can be regarded as little more than 
suggestive and the addition of further names is not desirable. 

Rhinolophus episcopus caldwelli Allen. 

Rhinolophus episcopus caldwelli G. M. Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 85, p. 3, 
Aug. 28, 1923 Yuki, Fukien, China. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 1 (sk.). 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 3 (ale.). 

Although slightly larger than the heretofore unique type of this 
form, these specimens may be referred to it with considerable con- 
fidence. The single skin agrees with the type of caldwelli in being 
brighter-colored than episcopus and in having the breast and throat 
dull whitish without dark-tipped hairs. The forearms measure 43.3, 
43.7, 44, 45.3 against 43 in the type of caldwelli and 47.5 in episcopus. 
The skulls indicate but little difference in size between the two forms, 
but the teeth appear to average slightly smaller in caldwelli. The 
species is readily distinguishable from all its congeners of the region 
except macrotis by the long palate and anteriorly narrowed skull. 

Rhinolophus macrotis siamensis Gyldenstolpe. 

Rhinolophus macrotis siamensis Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svenska Vetensk. Handl., 
57, No. 2, Mamm. II, p. 12, 1916 Doi Par Sakeng, northwestern Siam. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 2 (sk.). 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Two specimens of horseshoe bats in the collection may be assigned 
to R. m. siamensis, although their measurements definitely exceed 
those given for the unique type of that form. Comparison with 
published measurements indicates that they are almost exactly 
intermediate between macrotis and siamensis. The forearms are 
38, 39, against 41-43 for macrotis and 36.1 for siamensis. The upper 
toothrows are 5.7, 5.8, against 6.3 for macrotis and 5.3 for siamensis. 
The species appears to be rare or difficult to obtain and the total 
number of specimens recorded of all forms is quite small, so the 
extent of variation in size is but imperfectly known. It seems plain, 
however, that an eastern form may be differentiated which averages 
smaller than macrotis of the northwestern Himalayas and, at least 
until much more material is available, the name siamensis may best 
be used for it. 

The specimens above recorded fulfill the prediction made by 
Andersen in 1907 (Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Gen., (3), 3, p. 27) 
when in describing R. m. dohrni from Sumatra he said: "Rh. macrotis 
was hitherto only known from the Himalayas (Masuri, Nepal). It 
is therefore of much interest now to see the range of this species 
extended to Sumatra. After this there can, of course, be no doubt 
that it will also be found in Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula." 

Hipposideros larvatus Horsfield. 

Rhlnolophus larvatus Horsfield, Zool. Res. in Java, unpaged, 1824 Java. 

K.-R. Muong Bourn, T. 12 (sk.), 2 (ale.); Muong Moun, T. 
16 (sk.). 

These agree with specimens from Tenasserim and Upper Burma 
referred to this species by Wroughton (Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 
23, p. 704, May, 1915). They also agree in color with specimens 
from Java, the type locality, but are slightly larger, with forearms 
56-58 instead of 54-56, and their skulls are a little larger. Hence 
it is not improbable that a northern form might be differentiated, 
but what name it should bear is uncertain. 

Two color phases and various gradations between them are 
represented in the very fine series of skins collected by Hendee and 
Van Tyne. In one the terminal color of the hairs is Cinnamon 
Brown and in the other it is blackish Mummy Brown. 

Hipposideros gentilis Andersen. 

Hipposideros gentilis Andersen, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 2, pp. 380-381, 
Oct., 1918 Thayetmyo, Burma. 




. 
< 






Ei 



Of 



* 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 221 

K.-R. Muong Mo, T. 6 (sk.); Muong Moun, T. 9 (sk.), 1 (ale.). 
D. & L. 1929-30. Hoi Xuan, A. 4 (ale.). 

These agree fairly well with the type and others in the British 
Museum doubtless identified by the original describer. Externally 
they are scarcely distinguishable from the Indian R. fulvus, but the 
relative size of the small first lower premolar serves to place them. 
The forearms range in length from 38 to 42 and the skull length 
(canine to condyle) from 15.2 to 15.5. These measurements are 
almost exactly those given for typical gentilis, although the forearm 
comes within the range (40-43) given H. g. sinensis from Fukien. 
At most, this form can differ from gentilis only in slightly greater 
average size and its recognition seems scarcely justified by the small 
amount of material now available. 

Hipposideros cineraceus Blyth. 

Hipposideros cineraceus Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 22, p. 410, 1854 
Punjab, India. 

K.-R. Lai Chau, T. 1 (sk.); Muong Moun, T. 3 (sk.); Phong 
Tho, T. 1 (sk.). 

Apparently this is the smallest species of Hipposideros. The 
average length of the forearm in these five specimens is 33.8 (32.8- 
34.8). They were overlooked when material was selected for com- 
parison in the British Museum, but their dimensions seem to leave 
little room for doubt as to their identity. 

Hipposideros diadema masoni Dobson. 

Phyllorhina Masoni Dobson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 41, p. 338, 1872 Moulmein, 

Tenasserim. 
Hipposideros diadema masoni Andersen, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Gen., 

(3), 3, p. 6, 1907. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Lao Bao, A. 1. 

Until recently, the restricted diadema group has been recorded 
chiefly from insular localities, the only mainland form masoni being 
known from three specimens only from Tenasserim and Johore 
(Andersen, I.e.). A record from Annam, therefore, constitutes a 
considerable extension of the range of the group. The specimen, 
collected by the botanist Poilane, is in rather poor condition, mum- 
mified after temporary immersion in preservative. The skull is 
closely similar to that of one from Java, but the rostral prominences 
are slightly more swollen. 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY^ VOL. XVIII 

Hipposideros armiger Hodgson. 

Rkinolophus armiger Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 4, p. 699, 1835 central 
Nepal. 

K.-R. Muong Bourn, T. 15 (sk.), 2 (ale.). 
REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 1; Ngai Tio, T. 1. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2 (sk.), 78 (ale.). 

The color in this series agrees quite closely with that of specimens 
from central China rather than with those from Fukien which Allen 
(Am. Mus. Novit., No. 85, p. 4, 1923) has given separate recognition 
as H. a. swinhoei. There is considerable variation, however, and 
dichromatism seems to be indicated. 

Hipposideros pratti Thomas. 

Hipposideros pratti Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 7, p. 527, 1891 
Kiating, Szechwan, China. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 36 (ale.), 2 (sk.). 

Although not taken by previous collectors in the same region, 
this bat was found in numbers by Delacour and Lowe in 1930. 
The series includes both adult males and females as well as younger 
examples and serves to clear up uncertainties in regard to sexual 
differences which have been standing since the species was originally 
described from a single female some forty years ago. 

In recent years the only important notes on the species are those 
of Howell (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 75, p. 13, 1929), who records 
thirty specimens mainly from Hunan and Fukien, China. He is 
able to add considerable data as to color, size, and detailed distinc- 
tions from H. armiger, but his material included only one male and 
that apparently not fully mature. 

The adult males of the present series have enormous, wing-like, 
fleshy expansions on either side of the frontal sac, indicating a 
sexual difference far greater than has been suspected (fig. 29). These 
expansions reach a combined width of 28 mm. and when erected 
their points stand some 23 mm. above the nostrils. The V-shaped 
indention, at the bottom of which is the frontal sac, has a length 
on each side of 8 mm. 

In the adult females the expansions are similar in form but very 
much smaller, more densely hairy, and relatively inconspicuous. 
Their combined width is about 14 mm. and the height above the 
nostrils 13 mm. Some of the males examined have the expansions 
no larger than in the females and, although the alcoholic specimens 




I 




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-a 

a 

9 

I 1 

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224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

do not show especial signs of immaturity, they are perhaps to be 
regarded as young enough to be undeveloped. The few males here- 
tofore recorded evidently have been of this character. That the 
extreme development is seasonal may also be possible. Somewhat 
similar sexual differences have been observed and figured in H. 
armiger (Dobson, Monog. As. Chirop., p. 64, figs, a-b, 1876) and 
other species of Hipposideros, but the degree of divergence shown 
by H. pratti is far beyond any of these. In fact it may be said that 
the development of facial dermal appendages in this species exceeds 
that of any other member of the Chiroptera. 

The principal cranial characters distinguishing pratti from armiger 
are obviously related to the enlargement of the external dermal 
growths. These are the widened nares and the broad, depressed 
and concave rostrum with the consequent alteration of the entire 
dorsal outline of the skull. 

As noted by Andersen (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 17, p. 35, 
footnote, 1906), H. pratti is perhaps related to H. leptophylla, a 
species from the Khasi Hills, Assam, India, with skull unknown, 
but described as having the front border of the horseshoe notched 
as in pratti and in general similar except that the animal is smaller 
in size. Another obviously close relative is H. lylei (Thomas, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 12, p. 88, 1913), also described as smaller 
than pratti. The type locality of lylei is the vicinity of Chiengmai, 
northern Siam, which is relatively near the region from which the 
present series comes. Its forearm is given as 78, which is somewhat 
shorter than in the smallest (82.3) specimens in our series. Further 
specimens have been referred to lylei from the Shan States, Burma 
(Ryley, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 22, p. 715, 1914), but although 
it is intimated that specimens larger than the type may have been 
included, no measurements are given. Published comparisons of 
lylei and pratti, therefore, are confined to those of the respective type 
specimens, neither of which I have examined. Average measurements 
of forearms in the series from Tonkin are as follows: ten adult males 
86.3 (85.2-87.8); ten young males 85.9 (83.7-89.5); ten adult 
females 85.2 (82.3-88.4). These are slightly less than the average 
of 88.5 obtained by Howell for fourteen specimens from southern 
China. 

Triaenops wheeleri sp. nov. WHEELER'S TRIDENT BAT. 

Type from Muong Moun, Tonkin. No. 32,236 Field Museum of 
Natural History. Adult female. Collected March 21, 1929, by 
R. E. Wheeler. Orig. No. 80. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 225 

Diagnosis. Size small (forearm 42), much smaller than T. 
persicus and not quite equaling the dimensions given for T. furcula 
of Madagascar. Somewhat similar to T. tricuspidatus of the Solomon 
Islands, having the same exserted tail-tip, the same small ears, and 
very nearly the same nasal appendages, but differing in color and 
in having a more depressed rostrum and less inflated nasal region. 
Zygoma with a posterior vertical expansion well developed, but not 
equaling that of T. persicus; upper canines with anterior secondary 
cusps slightly higher than the posterior ones, thus differing from 
T. persicus in which the reverse condition occurs. 

Color. Upper parts brownish (Bister) or sooty (probably repre- 
senting two color phases), the hairs broadly white basally; under 
parts pale Snuff Brown, the hairs slightly lighter basally than 
terminally. 

Membranes and appendages. Wings and tail about as in Hippo- 
sideros; wings and interfemoral membrane from middle of metatarsus 
above base of toes; terminal phalanges of fourth and fifth fingers 
definitely bifurcate; foot with a narrow, well-differentiated sole; tail 
with its tip slightly exserted beyond interfemoral membrane. Ears 
short and when laid forward barely reaching to the nostrils; outer 
border of ear excavated in upper half and expanded in lower. Nose 
leaves double, at least laterally; a thickened heart-shaped area 
behind the nostrils thinly beset with stiff hairs and behind this an 
erect semilunate process rising from a thin membranous base and 
divided into three slightly rugose parts, a median subcylindrical one 
in the center and a subtriangular one on each side, the upper border 
thus having a tridentate appearance with the median point slightly 
higher than the lateral ones. 

Skull. General shape of skull much as in Hipposideros; rostrum 
depressed below level of braincase; zygomata somewhat converging 
anteriorly; an upright plate from the posterior half of the zygoma 
in general similar to that in T. persicus but its base occupying a 
smaller proportion of the zygoma; nasal region more inflated than 
in Hipposideros but less than in T. persicus and T. tricuspidatus; 
basioccipital relatively wide, much as in Hipposideros; upper incisors 
indistinctly bifid; upper canines with short anterior and posterior 
secondary cusps, the anterior slightly higher than the posterior. 

Measurements. Average of six adults: total length 84; tail 39; 
hind foot 8; forearm (dry) 41.6. Adult in alcohol: forearm 42; 
second finger, metacarpal 32; third finger, metacarpal 31.5; first 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

phalanx 15; second phalanx 21; fourth finger, metacarpal 31; first 
phalanx 12; second phalanx 7.5; fifth finger, metacarpal 28; first 
phalanx 12.5; second phalanx 10; tibia 18; hind foot 9; calcar 10. 
Skull of type: greatest length 15; condyle to front of canine 13; 
zygomatic width 7.4; mastoid width 7.1; interorbital constriction 2; 
width across nasal swellings 4.4; height of zygomatic plate 2; upper 
toothrow to front of canine 5.2. 

Remarks. The reference of this species to the genus Triaenops 
is somewhat provisional. T. tricuspidatus, heretofore regarded as a 
Hipposideros, may be placed in Triaenops with some confidence, but 
the present species, although obviously departing from typical 
Hipposideros in the same direction, appears not to have progressed 
so far. The general shape of its skull is not far from that of Hip- 
posideros, but in external characters it agrees with Triaenops and 
strongly approaches it in the character of the zygomatic plate and 
in the secondary cusps of the upper canines. Direct comparison 
has only been possible with T. persicus and T. tricuspidatus, since 
specimens of this genus are very rare in collections. The two small 
species (aurita and furcula) described from Madagascar approximate 
the size of wheeleri, but it is not improbable that it will prove less 
related to these than to tricuspidatus. 

Among Indo-Chinese bats thus far known, it is easily recognized 
by its small ears, its tridentate nasal appendage, and its well-marked 
expansion of the zygoma. 

Six skins with skulls and two in alcohol were obtained at Muong 
Moun, Tonkin, by the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition. A single 
skin without skull and forty-six alcoholics were taken in the vicinity 
of Chapa, Tonkin, by Delacour and Lowe in 1930. 

Coelops frithii inflata Miller. 

Coelops inflata Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 85, Mar. 16 E 1928 
Yenping, Fukien, China. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 4 (2 sk., 1 ale., 1 skull). 
D. & L. 1929-30. Hoi Xuan, A. 1 (ale.). 

Bats of the genus Coelops are quite rare in collections and nearly 
all the known specimens have been examined in identifying the 
present small series. In the British Museum there were accessible 
two skins from Java representing bernsteini; one skin from Cher- 
rapunyi, Assam, provisionally regarded as frithii; one skull from 
Lakhun, Laos; and the type of robinsoni from Pahang, Malay 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 227 

Peninsula. Through the kindness of G. S. Miller, Jr., and G. M. 
Allen, the types of inflata and sinicus also have been available. 

It is difficult to believe that the five names above mentioned 
represent as many separate and distinct species, but with scarcely 
more than one specimen for each name, and with each specimen 
showing some peculiarity, conclusions are difficult. In such cases 
it is customary to use binomials until material is more abundant 
in spite of great probability that complete gradation from one form 
to another will be found and that some of the characters of single 
specimens will not be maintained in series. The facts are that in 
Coelops the dependable characters shown by the various named 
forms are of a kind usually found to be subspecific and evidence 
that any two forms occupy the same territory is lacking. With the 
possible exception of sinicus, which is of different color and much 
larger than the others, all the names might profitably be brought 
together as subspecies of frithii. 

The Indo-Chinese specimens agree fairly well with the type of 
inflata, but do not show quite the same degree of enlargement of 
the braincase. They may thus be tending toward robinsoni, although 
they still exceed that form quite decidedly. The space between the 
outer lower incisor and the canine, which Miller has mentioned as a 
generic distinction, proves to be variable. In sinicus, these teeth 
are actually in contact. In one specimen from Tonkin, the space 
is slight, scarcely more than the width of one of the dentations of 
the incisor, while in others from the same locality it is nearly or quite 
equal to the full width of the incisor. 

Javanese specimens of C. /. bernsteini seem indistinguishable 
externally from frithii as represented by the specimen from Assam. 
The skulls also are very similar, that of frithii differing mainly in 
somewhat broader, heavier teeth. The skull from Lakhun, Laos, 
is a little larger than specimens of inflata from Tonkin but agrees 
with them in having the teeth narrower than in frithii and bernsteini. 
Therefore, it is perhaps to be regarded as somewhat connectant. 

C. /. robinsoni is quite the smallest form yet discovered. Measure- 
ments of the skull of its type, which were not published by the 
original describer, are given in the following series which includes 
consecutively (1) type of robinsoni, (2) type of inflata, (3) bernsteini 
from Java, (4) type of sinicus. Greatest length 14.5, 15.1, 16.5, 17.1; 
zygomatic width 6.4, 6.8, 7.3, 7.8; width of braincase 6.7, 7.5, 7.6, 
8.1; rostral width 3.4, 3.6, 4.1, 4.2; upper toothrow 4.7, 5.2, 5.7, 6.3. 
These measurements show a graded progression in size from the 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

smallest form robinsoni to the largest one sinicus, and when more 
specimens become available from intermediate localities, complete 
inosculation may well be expected. 

The genus Coelops has numerous dental characters distinguishing 
it from Hipposideros. Among them one which seems not to have 
been mentioned by previous writers is the existence of an anterior 
third cusp on the upper canine. In sinicus this is not well defined, 
but in the other forms it is quite prominent, giving the tooth the 
appearance of a primitive premolariform condition. 

Taphozous melanopogon Temminck. 

Taphozous melanopogon Temminck, Monog. Mamm., 2, p. 287, pi. 60, figs. 
8, 9, 1835-41 Java. 

K.-R. Pak Hou, L. 5 (sk.). 

Specimens of typical melanopogon from Java have not been 
available for comparison. The length of the forearm in these northern 
examples is 65-67 which is not unusual in series from India and 
Burma but is perhaps somewhat longer than will be found in East 
Indian material. 

Murina cyclotis Dobson. 

Murina cyclotis Dobson, Proc. As. Soc. Beng., p. 210, 1872; Jour. As. Soc. 
Beng., p. 206, pi. 14, part II, 1873. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 1 (sk.); Phong Saly, L. 3 (sk.). 

These agree with Indian specimens from the Chin Hills referred 
to this species by Wroughton. The type locality is said to be "un- 
known" and the type in the Indian Museum (No. 166a) appears to 
have had no recent examination. The species has been recorded 
from the island of Hainan by J. A. Allen (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 22, p. 487, 1906). 

Murina tubinaris Scully. 

Harpiocephalus tubinaris Scully, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 200, 1881 
Gilgit, Kashmir. 

K.-R. Muong Bourn, T. 1 (sk.); Muong Mo, T. 2 (sk.); Phong 
Saly, L. 5 (sk.), 1 (ale.). 

These appear to be the first records of this species for localities 
outside of India. Comparison with specimens from Darjeeling shows 
no important differences. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 229 

Pachyotus kuhli Leach. 

Scotophilus kuhlii Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 13, p. 71, 1822 no locality. 

K.-R. Phong Tho, T. 1 (sk.); Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 8 (sk.), 
1 (ale.). 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 3. 

These are equal in size to large examples from India and Burma, 
but do not reach the dimensions recorded for P. k. insularis of the 
island of Hainan. Forearms measure 60.8, 61, 61.5, 63, 63.5, 63.5, 
64.3. Most of the specimens are rich Hazel in color both above 
and below, but several are dull olivaceous above and bright, nearly 
Yellow Ocher below. 

Pachyotus castaneus Horsfield. 

Nycticejus castaneus Horsfield, Cat. Mamm. E. Ind. Mus., p. 38, 1851 
Malacca. 

K.-R. Quangtri, Phouc Mon, A. 3 (sk.). 
REC. 1925-29. Quang Ngai, A. 1. 

Comparison of these has been made with specimens from Tenas- 
serim and southern Siam from which they do not appear to differ 
in any important way. Specimens of Scotophilus gairdneri Kloss 
(Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 2, p. 284, 1917) from central Siam have 
not been available. Scotophilus castaneus consobrinus Allen (Bull. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 22, p. 485, 1906) from Hainan also seems very 
closely allied. 

Nyctalus noctula sinensis Peters. CHINESE NOCTULE BAT. 

Vesperus sinensis Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, (1880), p. 258, 1881 
Peking, Chihli, China. 

Nyctalus noctula sinensis A. B. Howell, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 75, p. 18, 
1929. 

K.-R. Suifu, Szechwan 5 (ale.); Yachow, Szechwan 1 (ale.). 

The Asiatic noctule bats closely allied to N. noctula of Europe 
have received several names and material representing them is 
scattered among various museums. Until these can be brought 
together for a general study, therefore, the identification of individual 
specimens is difficult. Apparently most of the eastern forms are 
smaller and have a greater extension of hair on the membranes, 
especially the interfemoral, than the European noctule, so this 
may distinguish them collectively; but characters of color and pro- 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

portions have not been thoroughly worked out and the status of 
any particular name is doubtful. 

The present specimens are quite dark in color and agree in general 
with the form called velutinus by G. M. Allen (Am. Mus. Novit., 
No. 85, p. 7, Aug. 28, 1923). The only difference deducible from 
the description is in the length of the second phalanx of the third 
finger which is given as 21.5 mm. for velutinus, whereas in our speci- 
mens it measures only 14 mm. The forearm in five specimens from 
Szechwan varies from 49.5 to 52. Specimens of N. n. Idbiatus of 
Nepal have not been available for comparison, so it seems best to 
follow Howell and refer Szechwan examples to sinensis. Nyctalus 
n. namayei Kuroda (Annot. Zool. Japon., 9, part V, p. 601, 1920) 
appears not to have been compared with sinensis, but the published 
measurements (forearm 45-48) indicate it to be a form of relatively 
small size. 

Miniopterus schreibersi parvipes Allen. 

Miniopterus schreibersi parvipes Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 85, p. 7, Aug. 
28, 1923 Yenping, Fukien, China. 

REC. 1925-29. Ngai Tio, T. 7. 

Specimens taken by Herbert Stevens and recorded by Thomas 
as "one of the dark eastern forms of this widely spread bat" are 
the only ones contained in any of the collections reviewed. Allen's 
name parvipes may be provisionally assigned to them although 
distinction from the Indian fuliginosus has not been fully demon- 
strated. Their relationship to Temminck's blepotis of Java is still 
to be considered. 

Kerivoula papillosa Temminck. 

Vesperlilio papillosus Temminck, Monog. Mamm., 2, p. 220, pi. 55, figs. 
1-4, 1835-41 Java. 

K.-R Muong Mo, T. 1 (sk.). 

A bat of the genus Kerivoula is provisionally referred to 
K. papillosa. In external measurements (forearm 40.7), it agrees 
with the form described from Calcutta as lenis (Thomas, Jour. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 24, p. 417, 1916), but the skull and teeth 
are larger, about as given for typical papittosa. 

Kerivoula depressa Miller. 

Kerivoula depressa Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 64, 1906 Biapo, 
northeast of Tounghoo, southern Burma. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 231 

K.-R. Muong Mo, T. 1 (sk.). 

A single Kerivoula, taken at the same locality with K. papillosa, 
is probably allied to K. depressa. It shows a similar broadening of 
the braincase, but its skull is considerably larger than in the type of 
depressa which has been loaned by the United States National 
Museum. In external size and appearance it agrees with depressa 
and may be referred to that form, at least provisionally, since its 
separation would scarcely be justified without examination of a 
larger number of specimens. 

Kerivoula sp. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 1 (ale.). 

An alcoholic specimen of a plain-colored Kerivoula is in rather 
poor condition and cannot be satisfactorily diagnosed. The forearm 
is 39, which might indicate affinity to K. papillosa, but the lower 
leg and foot (injured) scarcely reach 24, which is too short for that 
species. 

Myotis (Leuconoe) longipes Dobson. 

Vespertilio longipes Dobson, Proc. As. Soc. Beng., p. 110, 1873 Bhima Devi, 

Kashmir. 
Vespertilio megalopus Dobson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), 16, p. 261, 1875 

Africa [sic]. 
Leuconoe longipes Thomas, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 23, pp. 610, 612, 

May, 1915. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 1 (sk.). 

The skull of this bat has been compared with that of a cotype 
of longipes and that of the actual type of megalopus in both of which 
the skulls are perfect. The three agree so closely that not even the 
slightest distinction can be drawn among them. Although Thomas 
states (I.e., p. 610) that the occurrence of M. daubentoni in India 
is "extremely doubtful," I am much inclined to the belief that this 
bat is more closely related to that species than to any other. It 
is rare in India and apparently is now represented in the British 
Museum only by the two specimens above mentioned. Externally 
it is similar to specimens from the Kurile Islands referred to dauben- 
toni and also to macrodactylus from Japan. In these the skull is 
slightly larger, with a somewhat larger braincase. In the Tonkin 
specimen the color is paler than in the more northern skins, and the 
pale color of the under parts is extended to the base of the ears and 
on the side of the neck. 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

I am unable to see generic significance in the larger feet of the 
species embraced under the name Leuconoe. For the sake of that 
"convenience" which seems to apply mainly to the arrangement of 
specimens in museum cabinets a subgeneric term may be desirable. 

Myotis muricola Gray. 

Veapertilio muricola Hodgson, Calc. Jour. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 212, 1841 
nomen nudum; Gray, Cat. Mamm. & Birds Nepal & Thibet, p. 4, 1846 
central Nepal. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 6 (sk.). 

The name muricola may be used in the "blanket" sense for these 
specimens. Direct comparison with typical muricola has not been 
possible, but descriptions indicate agreement in all except details 
which are not likely to prove of more than subspecific significance. 
M. fimbriatus (Peters, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 617, 1870), which 
has a forearm of about the same length (38-39) as muricola, is a 
bat of quite different color and has a heavier skull with a high 
braincase and the anterior premolars are wholly in the toothrow. 
Specimens from Yenpingfu, Fukien, topotypes of M. hirsutus (A. B. 
Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 39, p. 139, 1926), have been used 
to represent fimbriatus. The probability that hirsutus is a synonym 
of fimbriatus has been called to my attention by G. M. Allen. 

Myotis siligorensis al ticraniatus subsp. nov. 

Type from Muong Moun, Tonkin. No. 32,174 Field Museum 
of Natural History. Adult female. Collected March 26, 1929, by 
R. E. Wheeler. Orig. No. 102. 

Diagnosis. Similar to M. siligorensis, but with a smaller skull 
and weaker dentition. Size very small (forearm 33-35, condylo- 
basal length of skull less than 12). Ears small, narrow, and sharply 
notched on the outer border; tragus slender, fusiform, nearly uniform 
in width except at the rather abruptly pointed tip; wing from just 
proximad of the base of the outer toe; tail slightly longer than the 
head and body. Skull very small with high, abruptly vaulted 
cranium; canines short and weak. 

Color. Upper parts dark Blackish Brown, the tips of the hairs 
scarcely lighter than the bases; under parts Buffy Brown super- 
ficially, Blackish Brown basally. 

Skull and teeth. Skull very small and light; braincase unusually 
high, its height nearly 80 per cent of its width so that from above 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 233 

the cranium has almost the appearance of globosity. Teeth similar 
in general to those of M. mystadnus, but weaker, the molars narrower 
and the canines lower; outer upper incisor separated from canine 
by a space slightly less than its width; anterior upper premolar with 
a higher crown than the following one, but the diameter of its shaft 
only slightly greater; small premolars directly in line in the toothrow, 
separated from the large premolar by a slight space; upper canines 
slightly higher than last premolars; lower canines smaller than last 
premolars and, in spite of their position, with their points standing 
lower in the toothrow than those of the large premolars; first lower 
premolar only slightly smaller than canine. 

Measurements. Seven adults measured by the collector: total 
length 71 (65-78); tail 36.7 (34-38); hind foot 7.4 (7-8). Forearms 
(dry) 34.7 (33-35.4); ear from meatus (dry) 8. Skull of type: 
greatest length 12; condylo-basal length 11.4; zygomatic width 7; 
interorbital constriction 2.9; width of braincase 5.7; depth of brain- 
case 4.5; maxillary toothrow 5.3. 

Remarks. This bat is characterized by its high, vaulted cranium 
and its very small size, being apparently the smallest Old World 
species of Myotis. This diminutiveness is evidenced more by the 
skull than by external measurements, since the length of the forearm 
equals that of some other forms. It belongs to the group typified 
by M. mystadnus among which Thomas (Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. 
Soc., 23, p. 609, 1915) has recognized two series, one with a lower 
braincase and longer canines as in typical mystadnus and another 
with high braincase and short, small canines. In the present 
knowledge of the group, it might be convenient to treat all the 
named forms as subspecies of mystadnus (as doubtless most of them 
will eventually prove to be), but with two types occupying the same 
region in India, it seems probable that the one showing the greatest 
departure from mystadnus may be specifically distinct. Therefore 
the present form is linked with siligorensis rather than mystadnus. 

Except for one example from Dakto, Annam, of which the skull 
is not available, I have been unable to find any specimens of this 
supposed new form in the collection of the British Museum, including 
the large accessions from India recently received through the survey 
of the Bombay Natural History Society. It seems most closely 
related to siligorensis, of which very few specimens except the type 
are known. The skull of this type (from Nepal) lacks the basicranial 
parts, but it is evident that the braincase is of the high form. Its 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

upper toothrow measures 5.7 and the teeth, although larger and 
wider, are in general proportions similar to those of alticraniatus. 
The names caliginosus, blanfordi, and moupinensis apply to forms 
with relatively low braincases, and nipalensis (Dobson, Proc. As. 
Soc. Beng., p. 214, 1871; Monog. As. Chiropt., p. 302, 1878) can 
scarcely fail to be a synonym either of caliginosus or of siligorensis. 
The form from Fukien called sowerbyi (A. B. Howell, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 39, p. 138, 1926), as shown by a series loaned by the 
United States National Museum, is closely allied to siligorensis and 
differs from alticraniatus precisely as does the type of siligorensis, 
namely, in decidedly larger size. If better material should prove 
sowerbyi separable from siligorensis, it would still be necessary to 
consider laniger (Peters, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 617, 1870) which 
comes from a near-by locality (Amoy, China) and which is described 
as having the same general dimensions. 

Specimens examined. Total number 7 (skins) all from the type 
locality. 

Pipistrellus abramus Temminck. 

Vespertilio abramus Temminck, Monog. Mamm., 2, p. 232, pi. 58, figs. 1, 2, 
1841 Nagasaki, Japan. 

K.-R. Quangtri, Phouc Mon, A. 12 (sk.), 4 (ale.). 
REC. 1925-29. Hug, A. 2. 

Identical with specimens in the British Museum referred by 
Thomas to abramus. Twelve carefully prepared skins show scarcely 
any variation in color, all being uniformly light brown. 

Pipistrellus mimus Wroughton. 

Pipistrellus mimus Wroughton, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 12, p. 722, pi., 
figs. 3, 3a, 1899 Mheskatri, Surat Dangs, India. 

K.-R. Quangtri, Phouc Mon, A. 1 (sk.). 

The single skin is indistinguishable in color from specimens of 
abramus from the same locality, but the short forearm (28.2) and 
small short skull are distinctive and exactly as in numerous specimens 
from India representing mimus. 

Pipistrellus coromandrus tramatus Thomas. 

Pipistrellus coromandrus tramatus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 144, 
1928 Backan, Tonkin. 

K.-R. Quangtri, Phouc Mon, A. 2 (sk.); Luang Prabang, L. 1 
(sk.); Ngai Cho, T. 1 (sk.); Phong Saly, L.I (sk.). 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 235 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 10; Phuqui, A. 3; Thai Nien, T. 17. 

Three of the specimens in the collection are very sooty in color, 
a variation commonly found in these small bats. They were com- 
pared with the type of tramatus and found to be in substantial agree- 
ment with it, but until a thorough study of the smaller oriental 
Vespertilionidae is made, much confidence cannot be placed in 
identifications of individual specimens. 

Pipistrellus tralatitius Horsfield. 

Vespertilio tralatitius Horsfield, Zool. Res. in Java, unpaged, 1824 Java. 
REC. 1925-29. Tarn Dao, T. 3. 

Not represented in the collections of the Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition. 

Pipistrellus raptor Thomas. 

Pipistrellus raptor Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 13, p. 387, 1904 
Tonkin. 

Not represented in recent collections and apparently still known 
only from the original series of six specimens from "Tonkin." 

Tylonycteris pachypus fulvida Blyth. 

Scotophilus fulvidus Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 28, p. 293, 1859 
Schwegyin, Burma. 

Tylonycteris rubidus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 15, p. 227, Feb., 

1915 lapsus for T, fulvida. 
Tylonycteris fulvida Wroughton, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 25, pp. 586- 

587, 1918. 

K.-R. Muong Mo, T. 5 (sk.), 1 (ale.); Muong Mo, T. 1 (sk.); 
Phong Saly, L. 9 (sk.), 5 (ale.). 

REC. 1925-29. Bao Ha, T. 1; Dakto, A. 2; Ngai Tio, T. 1. 

Thomas (I.e.) has called attention to marked differences in size 
in Tylonycteris from India and the East Indies, but after drawing 
specific distinctions he later decided the variation too confusing 
to maintain them (Wroughton, I.e., p. 586). Similar differences 
appear in the material from Indo-China and seem to bear out the 
original conclusion of Thomas. The series available is an unusually 
good one consisting of thirty-five carefully made skins with perfect 
skulls and measurements taken by the collector. Two forms are 
clearly distinguishable among them, one smaller and more rufescent 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

and the other larger and duller-colored. Differences in the size of 
the skulls seem to be definitely correlated with length of forearm 
and with color. At one locality (Phong Saly) both forms occur 
together without any evidences of intergradation. The smaller, 
brighter form agrees closely with specimens from India and Burma 
representing fulvida. Its forearm measures 24.7-26 and its skull 
has a length of about 11 and a zygomatic width of about 8. Col- 
lectors' measurements of nine specimens from Phong Saly are: 
total length 67 (65-70); tail 29.5 (27.5-31); foot 6.1 (5.5-7). The 
color is nearly uniform above and below, and ranges from Ochraceous 
Tawny to Cinnamon Brown, the former color prevailing on the basal 
part of the hairs and the latter on the terminal. 

Tylonycteris robustula Thomas. 

Tylonyderis robustula Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 15, p. 227, Feb., 
1915 upper Sarawak, Borneo. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 8 (sk.), 5 (ale.); Quangtri, Phouc Mon, 
A. 12 (sk.), 5 (ale.). 

The two small series above listed do not precisely agree, but they 
fall together much better than with fulvida. Those from Phong Saly 
are larger and slightly darker. Their forearms measure 26.5-29 and 
their skulls have a length of about 12.5 and a zygomatic width of 
about 9.3. Since these approximate the measurements given for 
T. robustula, that name is used for them. The color is deep Mummy 
Brown somewhat lighter below and the general effect is that of 
sootiness as compared to T. fulvida. 

The specimens from Quangtri seem to be somewhat like those 
referred to by Thomas as "middle," being intermediate in size 
between the two extremes. They are nearer to the larger form, 
especially in color, and may perhaps represent a slight differentiation 
of it without any real, close affinity to fulvida. 

Discopus denticulus gen. et sp. nov. 

Type from Phong Saly, Laos. Altitude 4,400 feet. No. 32,195 
Field Museum of Natural History. Female adult. Collected May 3, 
1929, by Russell W. Hendee. Orig. No. 5,522. 

Diagnosis. Externally similar to Pipistrellus, but tragus longer 
and more slender although not pointed at the apex; ears longer 
and narrowed at the tip; hind feet with highly developed disklike 
pads even more extreme than in Tylonycteris and Glischropus. Skull 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 237 

with a broad, greatly flattened braincase, somewhat as in Tylonycteris 
but with a longer, narrower rostrum; dentition with two upper and 
three lower premolars on each side, the middle lower pair small and 
internal to the toothrow. 

Color. Upper parts Cinnamon Brown, the hairs unicolored from 
base to tip; under parts brighter-colored, nearly Amber Brown, the 
hairs with darker bases. 

Skull. Braincase depressed or flattened to nearly the same 
extent as in Tylonycteris; rostrum decidedly longer than in Tylo- 
nycteris or Pipistrellus and somewhat upturned anteriorly, with a 
pronounced depression in the interorbital region; zygomata widely 
expanded; antorbital processes not developed; palate relatively long; 
basioccipital wide; coronoid process of mandible high and blunt, 
its posterior border slightly concave; dentition with two upper and 
three lower premolars; I. i; C. i; Pm. i; M. 1 = 34; general form 
of teeth not peculiar, but in the molarif orm series the teeth are wider 
in proportion to length than in Pipistrellus, Glischropus and Tylo- 
nycteris; inner upper incisor bifid; outer upper incisor normal in 
position, nearly or quite equal in size and height to the inner one 
and separated from the canine by a slight space; anterior upper 
premolar in contact with canine, but slightly separated from posterior 
premolar; middle lower premolar minute, rounded and slightly 
internal to toothrow. 

Measurements. Four adults measured by the collector: total 
length 83 (81-86); tail 40 (39-42); hind foot 6. Adult in alcohol: 
forearm 37.8; second finger, metacarpal 31.7; third finger, metacarpal 
34.2; first phalanx 16.2; second phalanx 14.8; fourth finger, metacarpal 
32.6; first phalanx 9.8; second phalanx 8.5; fifth finger, metacarpal 
32.2; first phalanx 9; second phalanx 7.5; tibia 17.2; hind foot 6.2. 
Skull of type: greatest length 14.2; condyle to front of canine 13.2; 
palatal length 6.5; front of orbit to end of premaxilla 4.7; zygomatic 
width 9.7; mastoid width 7.9; interorbital constriction 3.6; depth 
of braincase 3.9; width outside molars 5.8; front of canine to back 
of molars 5.4; lower toothrow to front of canine 5.8. 

Remarks. This bat combines to some extent certain characters of 
Pipistrellus, Glischropus, and Tylonycteris. It differs from all of them 
in the possession of three pairs of lower premolars. From Pipistrellus 
and Glischropus it is further distinguished by its greatly flattened 
braincase which suggests that of Tylonycteris, but since this last 
genus has only one upper premolar, it is well distinguished. The 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

adhesive disk on the foot is even larger than in Glischropus anc 
Tylonycteris. In alcoholic specimens it is subrectangular in shape 
yellowish in color, and it measures about 4.7 by 3.3. 

The middle pair of lower premolars is uniformly present in th< 
six specimens examined, so there seems no reason to question it: 
being a normal condition. The species was taken only at Phonj 
Saly, Laos. 

Galeopterus variegatus subsp. FLYING LEMUR. 
REC. 1925-29. Tay Ninh, C.C. 1. 

Thomas (1929, p. 833) has recorded one specimen under th< 
name pumilus, the applicability of which seems doubtful. It con 
stitutes the easternmost continental record of the genus. 

Hylomys suillus microtinus Thomas. 

Hylomys suillus microtinus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 497, 1925 
Thai Nien, Tonkin. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Bao Ha, T. 1; Thai Nien, T. 1. 

A specimen from Phong Saly collected by Hendee bring! 
the known examples of this form to a total of three. It agrees 
essentially with the type which seems well distinguished fron 
peguensis and siamensis by its darker and more uniform color. 

Hylomys suillus siamensis Kloss. 

Hylomys siamensis Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 2, p. 10, 1916 Hinlap 
between Saraburi and Korat, south-central Siam. 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 12; Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

Following Thomas, these specimens may be referred to siamensis 
but material not available to Kloss seems to indicate that siamensii 
is more closely similar to peguensis than has been supposed. Speci 
mens in Field Museum from the Namting River at the Burma- 
Yunnan border, referred by G. M. Allen to peguensis, do not diffei 
in color from the type of siamensis. Whether these really represenl 
peguensis, however, cannot be determined with certainty until speci- 
mens are obtained from Lower Burma in the region of the type 
locality (Schwegyin, Lower Burma). Kloss mentions the narrowei 
nasals of siamensis as compared with suillus and this character is 
shown by the Annamese specimens when compared with the supposed 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 239 

peguensis from Upper Burma. Further locality records are Sikortur 
(northwest of Raheng), Me Taw, and Pakchan, Siam (Kloss, Jour. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, Suppl., 8, p. 77, 1930). 

Neotetracus sinensis f ulvescens subsp. nov. 

Type from Chapa, Tonkin. No. 32.4.19.3. British Museum. 
Adult female. Collected Dec. 2, 1930, by J. Delacour and W. Lowe. 
Orig. No. 1,520. 

Diagnosis. Similar to N. sinensis of western China, but under 
parts usually more heavily suffused with fulvous; skull larger; 
dentition heavier. 

Color. Upper parts much as in N. sinensis, but averaging more 
ochraceous in tone, the prevailing color inclining to Cinnamon Brown 
rather than Dresden Brown; under parts usually with a heavy wash 
of Ochraceous Tawny either covering the entire under surface or 
most of the chest and belly, less developed in young animals and 
often very intense in old ones; feet whitish with a dark line down 
the outer side to the base of the toes; tail sharply bicolor, dusky 
above, narrowly white below. 

Skull. Larger and heavier than in sinensis, the greatest length 
reaching to 37.7; dentition heavier. 

Measurements. Average of ten adults : total length 198 (185-229) ; 
head and body 129 (121-148) ; tail 68 (63-82) ; hind foot 24.4 (23-26). 
Skull of type: greatest length 33.4; zygomatic width 17.8; width 
between postorbital processes 8.6; median length of nasals 11.4; 
width of braincase 14.1; upper toothrow from front of canine 16.7; 
molariform toothrow 7.2. 

Remarks. The insectivorous genus Neotetracus, previously known 
only from western China, is represented by a large series from Chapa, 
Tonkin. There are thirty-seven specimens of which eight are in 
alcohol. As compared with a series of ten from Yunnan in Field 
Museum, representing sinensis, these are conspicuously more fulvous 
below, but the Yunnan specimens are mostly subadult and there 
seems to be a tendency for the older individuals to be the most 
fulvous. Further comparison with aged examples of sinensis, there- 
fore, would be desirable. Skulls of comparable ages show a definite 
increase in general size and in that of the dentition in the Indo- 
Chinese form. 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 
Tupaia belangeri chinensis Anderson. CHINESE TREE SHREW. 

Tupaia chinensis Anderson, Zool. Res. West Yunnan, p. 129, pi. 7, figs. 8, 9, 
1879 Ponsee, Kakhyen Hills, near Burma border, Yunnan, China. 

K.-R. Likiang, Yunnan 1; Nguluko, Yunnan 6. 

These localities doubtless are near the northern limit of tree 
shrews, since Stevens obtained no further specimens after leaving 
the Likiang region. The specimens were taken in February and 
are in full winter pelage in which the body color encroaches exten- 
sively on the sides of the belly. The summer pelage is shown by 
three specimens in Field Museum taken at Yunnan Yi early in 
September just before the transition to the winter coat. Two of 
these have the under parts wholly light-colored and the third is in 
process of change. Except for their much paler under parts, there- 
fore, they are much like modesta in the same pelage. 

Tupaia belangeri modesta J. A. Allen. HAINAN TREE SHREW. 

Tupaia modesta J. A. Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 22, p. 481, 1906 

Lei Mui Mon, island of Hainan. 
Tupaia belangeri yunalis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 13, p. 244, 

1914 Mongtze, Yunnan. 
Tupaia belangeri tonquinia Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 497, 1925 

Bao Ha, Tonkin. 

K.-R. Bactan Trai, T. 1; Chapa, T. 1; Lieng San, T. 2; Muong 
Bourn, T. 1; Muong Yo, L. 1; Nam He, T. 1; Pa Ham, T. 1; Phong 
Saly, L. 6; Phong Tho, T. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 10; Hoi Xuan, A. 8; Lung Lunh, 
A. 1; Pakha, T. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 12. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 6; Bao Ha, T. 2; Chora, T. 1; Col 
des Nuages, A. 4; Dakto, A. 1; Kontoum, A. 1; Muong Sen, A. 3; 
Nape", L. 4; Ngai Tio, T. 3; Phuqui, A. 3; Thai Nien, T. 1; Thua 
Lua, A. 2; Xieng Kuang, L. 18. 

In all the large series of tree shrews from Indo-China accumulated 
through the various expeditions since 1924, by far the greater number 
are in full winter pelage. In this pelage the hairs of the under parts 
usually have dark bases throughout and the body color is extended 
over the sides of the belly, leaving only a narrow midventral line 
of lighter color continuous with expanded areas of the same on the 
chest, throat and unguinal region. As indicated mainly by specimens 
showing its beginning or ending, the summer pelage is quite different, 
the under parts being light-colored throughout, the hairs mostly 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 241 

self-colored, and the under parts as a whole well distinguished from 
the upper parts. In the few specimens in full summer pelage, the 
line of demarcation is sharply marked. 

Seven specimens in the Kelley-Roosevelts collection from Phong 
Saly and Muong Yo, Laos, are very illuminating. They were taken 
on or about May 1 and are in various stages of transition from one 
pelage to the other. Only one of the adults retains traces of the 
winter color of the under parts although both pelages of the upper 
parts are plainly evident in all. With them are two young examples 
in a full, fresh pelage closely resembling the usual winter pelage and 
in very great contrast to the adults from the same locality in which 
the summer pelage is being acquired. In one specimen from Chapa, 
Tonkin, taken October 30, transition from summer to winter is shown. 
New pelage covers the anterior half of the under parts and the hairs 
are with dark bases, but the posterior half has the light, self-colored 
hairs of the summer pelage and is thus practically indistinguishable 
so far as this area is concerned from the spring specimens from 
Phong Saly. 

After examination of more than ninety specimens, I am unable, 
on the basis of the winter pelage, to draw any constant distinctions 
between the tree shrews of the island of Hainan and those of the 
mainland or between those of highlands and lowlands from north- 
western Tonkin and northern Laos to central Annam. So far as it 
is represented, the summer pelage also furnishes no grounds for 
division. There is some variation in depth of color, but this cannot 
be correlated with locality. Extremes of olivaceous and reddish 
brown occurring indiscriminately seem to point to a slight dichro- 
matism. A fairly common variation is in the coloration of the chin 
and throat where, even in winter, the hairs may be light-colored 
to their roots, although usually with dark bases. 

Topotypes of modesta from Hainan, loaned by the American 
Museum of Natural History, can be matched in every detail by 
specimens from the mainland and, although larger series especially 
from Hainan would be desirable, it seems quite impossible with 
present material to mention any differentiating character. In 1925, 
when Thomas proposed the name tonquinia, he had only a half 
dozen mainland specimens and still fewer from Hainan. The 
supposed difference in the amount of black in the tail does not hold 
when series are examined. 

The type of T. 6. yunalis was taken in July and this doubtless 
accounts for its light under parts. Moreover, the type locality 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

(Mongtze, Yunnan) is not far from that of tonquinia and in a region 
in which the fauna is known to be preponderantly the same as that 
of northeastern Tonkin. Therefore, the distinction of yunalis can- 
not be maintained, at least not until both pelages are better repre- 
sented in collections than at present. T. b. laotum (Thomas, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 13, p. 244, 1914) from Nan, northern Siam, 
has not been examined, but in view of the wide distribution of 
modesta and the supposed intergradation with concolor, the slight 
characters assigned to it may need confirmation. 

Tupaia belangeri concolor Bonhote. 

Tupaia concolor Bonhote, Abstr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 2, Jan. 22, 1907; 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 7, June, 1907 Nhatrang, Annam. 

REC. 1925-29. Bokor, C. 2; Sambor, C. 1; Siem Reap, C. 3; 
Tay Ninh, C.C. 2. 

Although supposed to have only two pairs of mammae instead 
of the three usual in the belangeri series, this form is regarded by 
Kloss and Thomas as only subspecifically separable. A specimen 
in Field Museum from Bangkok, Siam, plainly has but two pairs 
of mammae. A further complication is T. glis cambodiana Kloss 
(Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 3, p. 357, 1919) which is stated to have 
six mammae and to inhabit the same region as concolor. 

Dendrogale frenata Gray. PIGMY TREE SHREW. 

Tupaia frenata Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (3), 6, p. 217, 1860 Cambodia. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Ninh Hoa, Nhatrang, A. 1. 
REC. 1925-29. An Binh, C.C. 4. 

These are among the very few examples of the species thus far 
recorded. 

Talpa klossi Thomas. SIAMESE MOLE. 

Talpa klossi Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 3, p. 206, Feb., 1929 
Hue Nya Pla, 10 miles n.w. of Raheng, Siam. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 6. 
DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 2. 

The discovery of moles in Tonkin increases the probability of 
connection with the forms of northern India. The specimens are 
in complete agreement with the description of T. klossi, the skulls 
being decidedly smaller and narrower than in T. micrura of which 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 243 

a series is now available in Field Museum, obtained by the Cutting 
Sikkim Expedition. The external and cranial resemblance of klossi 
to P. leucurus is evidently so close that suspicion seems justified 
as to the normality of the numerical difference in dentition. 

Parascaptor leucurus Blyth. WHITE-TAILED MOLE. 

Talpa leucura Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 19, p. 215, pi. 4, figs. 1, la, 1850 
Cherrapunji, Assam. 

REC. 1925-29. Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

This specimen has not been examined, but the record by Thomas 
is accepted although his failure to make any reference to it when 
describing Talpa klossi seems rather unaccountable. 

Ghimarrogale himalayica Gray. HIMALAYAN WATER SHREW. 

Cros&opus himalayicus Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (1), 10, p. 261, 1842 
"Himalayas," India. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2. 

Water shrews from Tonkin and Laos appear referable to the 
Himalayan form and do not especially approach the one recorded 
from Annam or that from Fukien. They differ from typical hima- 
layica in somewhat paler, less brownish under parts, but the material 
is so limited that it seems inadvisable to add any further names. 
Collector's measurements of an adult male are: total length 213; 
tail 84; hind foot 26. 

The type of himalayica in the British Museum is a "dismounted," 
stuffed skin somewhat altered by exposure to light and its skull is 
represented only by tiny fragments to which are attached the upper 
incisors, five of the upper unicuspids, one lower incisor, and one lower 
unicuspid. There are three additional specimens from Sikkim includ- 
ing one skull without braincase but with the antecranial part and 
all the teeth intact. The teeth of Indo-Chinese specimens agree in 
size with those of the type and the other specimen examined from 
Sikkim. In size of teeth himalayica stands well differentiated from 
the other continental members of the group and perhaps does not 
intergrade with them. The others, however, differ among them- 
selves mainly in the size of the teeth, styani (Szechwan) being 
smallest, leander (Fukien) slightly larger, and varennei (Annam) a 
little larger still; but none of them equals himalayica. It is not 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

improbable, therefore, that gradation from one to the other will 
eventually be found. 

External characters are difficult to evaluate with only one or 
two specimens of each form available. In styani (two specimens 
only) the under parts are very light-colored and this silvery extends 
to the upper lips and sides of the face; in leander (type only) the 
entire under parts are so worn that they appear scarcely lighter 
than the upper parts, but the white on the under side of the tail 
is marked although extending for only two-thirds its length; in 
varennei (type only) the tail is wholly dark and thus unique among 
continental forms. 

The group to which these water shrews belong is a very compact 
one. The species of Borneo (phaeura) and Sumatra (sumatrana) 
have been placed separately in a genus Crossogale (Thomas, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 243, March, 1921), although it is obvious 
that they are very closely allied to the continental ones belonging 
to true Chimarrogale. This close relationship, which may be of 
much zoogeographic importance, was recognized when both con- 
tinental and insular species were included in Chimarrogale. Dividing 
them into two genera obscures the relationship and unless the dis- 
tinctions between them should be very pronounced, would seem to 
be a disadvantage rather than otherwise. These distinctions are 
relative, not absolute, and consist only in the development in 
Crossogale of an inner cusp on the upper incisors making them 
imperfectly bifid. This cusp is found in an incipient condition in 
Chimarrogale and, if a large number of specimens were available, 
it is not unlikely that occasional ones would show more of it. It 
is the normal condition in Soriculus. 

There are then two significant facts about this group: (1) the 
obvious relationship of the continental and insular species; and (2) 
the pronounced development of a supplementary inner cusp in the 
upper incisors of the two island species. One of these facts is em- 
phasized by using only one generic name and the other by using two 
generic names. If Crossogale were given only subgeneric rank, 
however, the nomenclature and both facts would be in complete 
conformity. It seems to be a particularly good illustration of the 
undesirable results obtained by overemphasis of the generic category 
of classification. 

Crocidura dracula Thomas. 

Croddura dracula Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 9, p. 686, June, 1912 
near Mongtze, Yunnan. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 245 

Crocidura praedax Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 11, p. 656, June, 
1923 Likiang valley, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Ba Nam, T. 1; Chapa, T. 1; Lai Chau, T. 2; Muong Chao 
Noi, near Phong Saly, L. 1; Muong Mo, T. 1; Nguluko, Yunnan 2. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 40 (35 sk., 5 ale.); Hoi Xuan, A. 1. 
REC. 1925-29. Ngai Tio, T. 3. 

Although not taken in numbers by the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedi- 
tion, the very large series obtained by Delacour and Lowe at Chapa 
seems to indicate that this is the most common shrew of the elevated 
parts of Tonkin. It is also well represented in Field Museum by 
numerous specimens from the Likiang region of Yunnan, type locality 
of C. praedax. 

Examination of the types of both dracula and praedax in the 
British Museum shows only differences which are quite bridged 
over in the series. The slight color differences noted by Thomas 
prove to be entirely seasonal and any attempt to substantiate a 
northern form on the basis of larger size is negatived by the occurrence 
of numerous large specimens in the more southern localities. The 
largest of all examined are three from the Namting River at the 
Burma border. The single specimen from Hoi Xuan, which is still 
farther removed from Likiang, is distinctly larger than the type of 
praedax. A decidedly immature specimen from Laos is very much 
darker than any of the adults. It seems necessary, therefore, to 
regard dracula and praedax as the same and to conclude that minor 
size variations, as in several others of the smaller insectivores of 
the region, do not in this case have classificatory significance. 

The supposed relationship of C. griscescens Howell to C. dracula 
appears to need substantiation by further specimens. A topotype, 
loaned by the United States National Museum, has a shorter tail 
than in dracula, and the imperfect skull is smaller with a shorter 
toothrow. In fact, the skull and teeth show very close agreement 
with some of the larger examples of attenuata from Szechwan. The 
hind foot is rather large, but the specimen has the appearance of 
having been remade, perhaps from alcohol, so measurements taken 
from it are probably untrustworthy. 

Crocidura attenuata Milne-Edwards. 

Crocidura attenuata Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 7, 
p. 92, 1872; Rech. Mamm., p. 263, pis. 38b, 39a, 1868-74 Mouping, 
Szechwan. 

K.-R. Yachowfu, Szechwan 1. 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

This common Chinese shrew is represented by one specimen 
taken by Jack Young, interpreter for Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt. 

Crocidura vorax G. M. Allen. 

Crocidura vorax G. M. Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 100, p. 8, Dec., 1923 
Snow Mountain, near Likiang, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Nien Yuenfu, Szechwan 1. 

This specimen, taken in April, is considerably paler than one 
from Likiang, taken in November, but otherwise is closely similar. 

Crocidura indochinensis Robinson & Kloss. 

Crocidura indochinensis Robinson & Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, p 
88, Jan., 1922 Dalat, Langbian Plateau, Annam. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2 (ale.). 

Two small shrews in alcohol appear to represent this species, 
with the description of which they agree in dimensions and cranial 
characters. They are rather smaller than C. vorax, but their upper 
unicuspids have similar proportions and, therefore, as suggested 
by G. M. Allen, they may be allied to that species. The upper 
toothrow in one specimen measures 7.3; width of palate including 
molars 5.2. 

Suncus caeruleus Kerr. MUSK SHREW. 

Sorex caeruleus Kerr, Anim. King., p. 207, 1792 India. 
K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 14. 

No attempt has been made to determine these other than as 
members of the caeruleus series, formerly known under the name 
murina and more recently as myosurus. The Indian forms have 
been studied recently (Lindsay, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 33, 
pp. 326-340, Feb., 1929), but the identification of outlying speci- 
mens is still difficult owing, as Mrs. Lindsay states, to the unnatural 
dispersal of the animals which has taken place through railways 
and steamships. A large adult from the present series measures: 
total length 230; tail 81; hind foot 22.5. 

Blarinella wardi Thomas. WARD'S SHORT-TAILED SHREW. 

. Blarinella wardi Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 15, p. 336, 1915 Hpimaw, 
Upper Burma. 

K.-R. Nguluko, near Likiang, Yunnan 1. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 247 

A single specimen of the rare genus Blarinella may be referred 
to this species. The skull, which is imperfect anteriorly, has a 
braincase with a width of 8.5 mm., exactly the dimension given 
for the type of wardi. The breadth between the outer edges of the 
glenoid processes is 5.2 mm. 

Anourosorex squamipes Milne-Edwards. 

Anourosorex squamipes Milne-Edwards, Comptes Rendus, Acad. Sci. Paris, 

70, p. 341, 1870 Mouping, Szechwan, China. 
Anourosorex squamipes capnias G. M. Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 100, p. 

10, Dec. 28, 1923 To-mu-lang, Chung Tien, Yunnan, China. 
Anourosorex assamensis capita G. M. Allen, supra cit., p. 11 Mucheng, 

Salween drainage, Yunnan, China. 

K.-R. Chapa, T. 7. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 30 (4 ale.). 

The series of more than thirty specimens from a single locality 
in Tonkin shows a range of variation in size and color completely 
covering the supposed distinctions between several named forms. 
After studying this series and all the specimens in the British Museum 
(about sixty in number) representing various localities from northern 
Szechwan to Assam, together with topotypes and material from the 
original series of the two forms described by Allen, I can find no 
logical basis for division of the group beyond the recognition of 
squamipes as a wide-ranging, variable species with one local differen- 
tiation (assamensis') confined to certain parts of Assam. 

Available material from Szechwan representing typical squamipes 
does not show such variation in size as that from more southern 
localities, but the preponderance of the southern specimens is 
practically indistinguishable. The extremes of size shown in various 
of the southern series are very puzzling, but they do not seem to 
have any geographic or altitudinal basis, since they occur indis- 
criminately in Yunnan, Assam, Burma and Tonkin. Color and 
dental characters also fail when large series are examined. The 
"greenish" color of the under parts supposed to characterize capito 
occasionally appears in Szechwan specimens and in the Tonkin 
series there is evidence that it may be largely, if not wholly, seasonal. 
This series includes material taken by two different parties at 
different dates. Specimens obtained by Delacour and Lowe in early 
December are mostly in a "bluish" plumbeous coat showing evidence 
of wear and obviously being a summer or autumn pelage about to 
be renewed. Several specimens show the renewal beginning and have 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

patches of the "greenish" appearing on the under parts. These 
specimens, therefore, are carrying parts of two pelages, one bluish 
and the other greenish. Specimens from the same locality taken 
two months later by the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition in February 
are in a fresh new pelage in which the hair is soft and long and the 
under parts mostly greenish or brownish. 

The notch in the second upper incisor is usually found in young 
unworn teeth, while in the old worn ones it has disappeared, but it 
is not always well marked in young examples and in almost every 
series examined there are specimens that show it and others that 
do not. 

The only evidence of pronounced and constant distinction from 
squamipes is shown by two series from the Jaintia Hills and the 
Mishmi Hills, Assam. These are constantly larger and have coarser 
pelage than squamipes even when this is regarded in a broad sense 
to include the larger specimens found recurrently in Yunnan, Burma, 
and Tonkin. It is probable, therefore, that the large head ascribed 
to assamensis by Anderson was that of a specimen of this kind 
and it may be possible to recognize assamensis as a local race of 
squamipes. That it is quite local is shown by a single specimen 
from the Garo Hills, eastern Assam, which is smaller and not appreci- 
ably different from typical squamipes. 

Measurements of a skull of average size from Shangpung, Jaintia 
Hills, and of a somewhat larger one from Mishmi Hills are as follows: 
superior margin of foramen magnum to tip of premaxillae 1 25.1, 
26; greatest length including incisors 26.4, 27.3; palatal length 11.9, 
12.2; mastoid width 14.2, 14.9; upper toothrow 12.2, 12.5. 

In 1916 Wroughton (Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 24, p. 766) 
referred specimens from the Chin Hills, Burma, to A. squamipes, 
quoting 0. Thomas as follows: "After very careful examination, I 
fail to find any character by which this animal can be distinguished 
from the A. squamipes of Szechwan." At that time the large speci- 
mens from Assam, referred to above, had not been received and 
later when they were listed by Hinton and Lindsay (Jour. Bomb. 
Nat. Hist. Soc., 31, p. 391, Aug., 1926), the name squamipes was 
applied to them without comment, this doubtless being due to the 
previously expressed conclusions of Wroughton and Thomas. Mean- 
while, without access to any of this material, but with appreciation 
of the large size of assamensis as originally described, G. M. Allen 
(supra cit.) found what appeared to be a larger and a smaller form 

l This measurement for his type is given by Anderson as 1.04 inches. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 249 

at different altitudes in Yunnan and he naturally regarded one as 
being related to squamipes and the other to assamensis. This 
interpretation is perhaps still possible, but a review of practically 
all existing specimens does not give it confirmation and, unless 
careful field studies not yet made should demonstrate some logical 
segregation of the larger and the smaller Anourosorex throughout 
its range, the recognition of several forms cannot be justified. In 
order to recognize squamipes, capita, and capnias, it would almost 
be necessary to assume that all three occur at one locality in Tonkin. 
In the large series of this genus in the British Museum, the 
prominence of the elongated hairs of the rump is very striking. This 
does not seem to be correlated with sex but probably is connected 
with some glandular development. In 90 per cent of the specimens, 
these hairs are much elongated, forming an elevated tuft, almost 
a brush, on the rump. The hairs in most cases are paler than on 
other parts, rusty brownish or even whitish. Usually they are 
glistening with a mucilaginous exudation, or frequently matted 
together with it. The simulation of caked soil or other inorganic 
matter suggests that there is some connection with the burrowing 
habit, but examination of the hairs under a hand lens usually shows 
nothing on them except the above-mentioned exudate. This has 
been referred to casually by Anderson and Allen, but it appears to 
deserve emphasis, evidently being a unique character which would 
well repay study in the field with living animals and which should 
be examined by dissection of fresh specimens. 

Chodsigoa lowei sp. nov. 

Type from Chapa, Tonkin. No. 32.4.19.4. British Museum. 
Adult male. Collected Nov. 23, 1929, by J. Delacour and W. Lowe. 
Orig. No. 1,298. 

Diagnosis. Size medium; tail considerably longer than head 
and body; skull with a high, narrow braincase very different from 
the broad, flattened type usual in the genus. 

Color. Entire body Dark Mouse Gray slightly tinged with 
brownish on the chest and throat; sparse hairs on feet wholly dusky; 
tail dusky above, very slightly lighter below in proximal fourth; 
tip (3 mm.) of tail white; whiskers mainly white or dusky with white 
tips. 

Skull. General shape long and slender; braincase high, narrow, 
and smoothly rounded without trace of a sagittal ridge; projection 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

of glenoid fossa reduced and but slightly evident from above; teeth 
somewhat narrower than in C. hypsibia although the length of the 
toothrow may be slightly greater; molars without pigmentation. 

Measurements. Collectors' measurements of type: total length 
163; head and body 77; tail 86; hind foot 15. Skull of type: greatest 
length 20.4; condylo-basal length 19.2; interorbital constriction 5; 
width of braincase 9.3; height of braincase 5.3; length of palate 
7.8; width of palate with molars 5.7; postpalatilar length 9.1; upper 
toothrow 8.8; lower toothrow 8.2. 

Remarks. Although the collection contains but one specimen 
of this species, its characters are very marked and it cannot be 
referred to any named form. The shape of the braincase shows 
none of the flattening seen in C. hypsibia and C. smithi. In fact 
it goes almost to the opposite extreme in which the sides of the 
braincase are approaching the vertical. There is no trace of a 
sagittal crest and the cranial outlines are essentially as in typical 
Soriculiis. To this extent, therefore, it breaks down the distinctions 
between Chodsigoa and Soriculus, leaving only the presence or absence 
of the minute premolar and the pigmentation of the molars to separate 
them. 

This is the first and only record of Chodsigoa south of China. 
The species is named for Willoughby Lowe. 

Chodsigoa smithi Thomas. 

Chodsigoa smithi Thomas, Abstr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 4, 1911 Tatsienlu, 
Szechwan. 

K.-R. Yulongkong, Szechwan 1. 

Collector's measurements are: total length 171; tail 75; hind 
foot 16. Greatest length of skull 23.5; width of braincase 10.9; 
upper toothrow 10.3. 

Soriculus leucops Horsfield. INDIAN LONG-TAILED SHREW. 

Sorex leucops "Hodgson," Horsfield, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 16, p. Ill, 

1855 Nepal. 
Sorex macrurus Hodgson, Cat. Mamm. Nepal & Thibet, ed. 2, p. 9, 1863 

nomen nudum. 
Soriculus macrurus "Hodgson," Blanford, Mamm. Brit. India, p. 231, 1891 

Darjeeling, India. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Mount Fan Si Pan (alt. 10,000 feet), near 
Chapa, T. 1 (ale.). 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 251 

A single alcoholic specimen is evidently allied to the small 
long-tailed shrew of northern India. No Indian specimens are at 
hand, but comparison with a specimen of S. irene (probably a sub- 
species of leucops) shows the skulls to be very similar, that of irene 
being slightly larger. Measurements taken from the alcoholic speci- 
men are : total length 163 ; tail 95 ; hind foot with claws 15.8. Greatest 
length of skull 17.7. 

Soriculus baileyi Thomas. BAILEY'S LONG-TAILED SHREW. 

Soriculus baileyi Thomas, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 22, p. 683, 1914 
Tsu River, Mishmi Hills, India. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Mount Fan Si Pan (alt. 10,000 feet), near 
Chapa, T. 11 (1 skin and skull, 3 skins, 7 ale.). 

No comparison of these specimens with the type of S. baileyi 
has been made, but measurements indicate they are closely similar 
to if not identical with it. The tail length in the eleven specimens 
ranges from 68 mm. to 76 with an average of 70. Greatest length 
of skull 21.1; width of braincase 10.1; width of palate with molars 
5.4; upper toothrow 9 (9.6);* front of i 1 to front of p 4 4.1 (4.3); 
combined length of three large unicuspids 2.5 (2.7); height of first 
unicuspid 1.1 (1.2); length of mandible with incisor 13.3 (14.1). 

The genus Soriculus has not been recorded before from Indo-China. 

Sorex minutus thibetanus Kastschenko. 

S[orex] minutus subsp. thibetanus Kastschenko, Survey of Mammals of 
Western Siberia and Turkestan.f p. 93, Tomsk, 1905 Tsaidam, Mongolia. 

K.-R. Muli, Szechwan (10 miles north) 1. 

A single tiny shrew obtained by Jack Young may be assigned 
provisionally to this form. Collector's measurements are: total 
length 80; tail 33; hind foot 11. The skull is very small with a low, 
flattened braincase and the fifth upper unicuspid is relatively large 
but low-crowned and without pigmentation. The greatest length 
of the skull is 15.1; width of braincase 6.5; upper toothrow 6.5. 

Panthera pardus delacouri Pocock. LEOPARD. 

Panthera pardus delacouri Pocock, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 34, p. 325, 
pi. 11, July 15, 1930 Hue 1 , Annam. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 2 (skulls). 
REC. 1925-29. Hue, A. 1. 

* Measurements in parentheses are those published for the type of baileyi. 
f Translated title furnished through the courtesy of M. A. C. Hinton. 



252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hue, A. 1 (type, skin and skull); Quangtri, 
A. 1 (pelt). 

WULSIN 1924. Baxat, L.? 1 (skull). 

The leopard of Indo-China has been distinguished recently by 
Pocock, the type being a specimen in the Delacour and Lowe collec- 
tion of 1930. His characterization is as follows: "A race from 
Annam, recalling japonensis in colour but with the rosettes smaller 
and closer set and with darker centres, and the coat on the body 
and tail as short and sleek as in the typical Indian panther." 

Panthera tigris Linnaeus. TIGER. 

Felis tigris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 41, 1758 Asia. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 1 (skull); Vientiane, L. 1 (skull). 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2 (pelts). 

Felis (Neofelis) nebulosa Griffith. CLOUDED LEOPARD. 

Felis nebulosa Griffith, Descr. Vert., p. 37, 1821 Canton, China. 
K.-R. Near Lao Kay, T. 1 (pelt). 

Felis (Profelis) temmincki dominicanorum Sclater. 

Felis dominicanorum Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 2, pi. 1, 1898 Foochow, 
Fukien, China. 

K.-R. Lao Fou Chai, L. 1 (pelt); Luang Prabang, L. 1 (pelt). 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hue, A. 1; Lao Bao, A. 1 (pelt). 

REC. 1925-29. Bao Ha, T. 1; Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

Both color phases are represented, one wholly grayish brown 
and the other wholly bright ochraceous. The skin from Lao Fou 
Chai, probably of an immature animal, has very soft, long fur and 
the tail is indistinctly annulated. 

Felis (Pardofelis) marmorata Martin. MARBLED CAT. 

Felis marmorata Martin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 108, 1836 "Java or 
Sumatra." 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 1 (pelt). 
REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 1. 

This cat is evidently rare in the region, the records apparently 
being the most northeastern for the species. 

Felis (Zibethailurus) viverrina Bennett. FISHING CAT. 

Felis viverrina Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 68, 1833 India. 

REC. 1925-29. Saigon, C.C. 1. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 253 

Felis (Felis) affinis fulvidina Thomas. JUNGLE CAT. 

Felis affinis fulvidina Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 834, 1929 Tay 
Ninh, Cochin China. 

REC. 192&-29. Tay Ninh, C.C. 1. 
Felis (Prionalurus) bengalensis Kerr. LEOPARD CAT. 

Felis bengalensis Kerr, Anim. King., p. 151, 1792 Calcutta, India. 

K.-R. Ba Nam Nhung, T. 1; Muong Moun, T. 4; Muong Yo, 
L. 1; Phong Saly, L. 2. 

D. & L. 1929-30. "Annam," 2; Hoi Xuan, A. 1; Hue, A. 1; 
Kratie, C. 1; Lao Bao, A. 1; Pakha, T. 3; Quangtri, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 11; Hue, A. 1; Ngai Tio, T. 1; 
Nganson, T. 1; Quang Ngai, A. 1; Quangtri, A. 1; Tay Ninh, C.C. 3; 
Xieng Kuang, L. 8. 

WULSIN 1924. Lai Chau, T. 1. 

The small series from Tonkin and Laos taken by the Kelley- 
Roosevelts Expedition shows relatively little variation. One old 
male has the spots of the upper parts much enlarged and with a 
tendency to confluence into broad stripes. The others vary within 
quite narrow limits, the ground color light ochraceous with medium- 
sized black spots and stripes regularly arranged. 

Flesh measurements of two adult males are: total length 873, 
870; tail vertebrae 300, 315; hind foot 130, 125. Two adult females: 
795, 783; 305, 284; 115, 117. 

Felis (Prionalurus) chinensis Gray. CHINESE LEOPARD CAT. 

Felis chinensis Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 1, p. 577, 1837 China. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 1. 

In a preliminary examination of the spotted cats of the Kelley- 
Roosevelts collection, this specimen was noted as so distinct from 
all others that it was taken to London for comparison with material 
in the British Museum. An unexpected result was the discovery 
that it is practically identical with Gray's type of Felis chinensis, 
which is preserved in good condition and which is supposed to have 
come from Canton. The specimen is a female measured, skinned, 
and "made up" by Hendee, so there is no question of locality or 
data. It has a short tail, small feet, and spots reduced to very 
small flecks except on the legs and under parts where they are much 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

as in bengalensis. Its body color is that of a finely speckled animal 
rather than that of one heavily spotted or striped. The black spots 
on the body are numerous, but very small, not exceeding 8 mm. in 
diameter. The markings about the head, legs, and under parts are 
as usual in bengalensis, but there the resemblance ceases. The 
common pattern of large spots and stripes on the back and sides is 
lacking. The small spots are regularly distributed over a ground 
color of two shades of grayish buff and do not show any tendency 
to confluence. 

Flesh measurements taken by the collector are: total length 697; 
tail 239; hind foot 108. The skull, so far as preserved, shows no 
marked departure from that of bengalensis. The teeth are smaller 
than in any specimen of bengalensis examined, the length of the 
carnassial being 9.4 (in bengalensis 10-10-6). 

This specimen goes so far beyond the wide variation known in 
bengalensis that it seems to require some special explanation, but it 
is difficult to find any. Its agreement with the type of chinensis 
suggests the possibility that a coastal race may occupy the area from 
Annam to Canton without ranging inland. In the Delacour and 
Lowe collection, however, there are specimens supposed to come 
from the coast of Annam which do not differ greatly from the usual 
bengalensis. The exact localities for these specimens are open to 
slight question and it is not impossible that they may have been 
brought from a distance. A specimen from the island of Hainan, 
as described by J. A. Allen (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 22, p. 478, 
1906), seems, on the other hand, to have the speckled coloration 
somewhat as in the type of chinensis and the specimen from Quangtri 
under consideration. 

The possibility of hybridism, perhaps with the domestic cat, 
cannot be entirely excluded, but it is difficult to accept the idea 
that this specimen is a mere color variant of bengalensis. Since it 
agrees with the type of chinensis, it is treated under that name and 
other small spotted cats from Indo-China are referred to bengalensis. 

Felis (Prionalurus) scripta Milne-Edwards. SZECHWAN CAT. 

Fells scripta Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 7, p. 92, 
1870; Rech. Mamm., p. 341, pis. 57, 58, 1870-74 Mouping, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Tatsienlu, Szechwan 1. 

This specimen agrees well with the description and figures of 
Milne-Edwards and doubtless is a good representative of the cat 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 255 

named scripta. Whether this animal is more than subspecifically 
separable from bengalensis and whether or not it is distinguishable 
from microtis of Peking are questions for future determination. 

Viverra zibetha Linnaeus. LARGE INDIAN CIVET. 

Viverra zibetha Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 44, 1758 Bengal, India. 

K.-R. Ba Nam Nhung, T. 2; Muong Mo, T. 1; Muong Yo 
L. 2; Lai Chau, T. 1; Nguluko, Yunnan 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 1; Hoi Xuan, A. 3; Hue, A. 1; 
Lao Bao, A. 1; Quangtri, A. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 5; Bao Ha, T. 1; Dakto, A. 1; 
Kontoum, A. 1; Phu Rieng, C.C. 1; Quangtri, A. 1; Xieng Kuang, 
L. 2. 

Following Allen (Am. Mus. Novit., No. 359, p. 1, 1929), these 
are referred to the typical Indian form of this variable and wide- 
spread species, proper subdivision of which must await a more 
extensive study than has yet been made. Doubtless there are 
several recognizable races but attempts to delimit them so far have 
been unsatisfactory. If an Indo-Chinese form should be demon- 
strable, it would take the name surdaster (Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., p. 46, 1927). 

Viverra megaspila Blyth. BURMESE CIVET. 

Viverra megaspila Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 31, p. 331, 1862 Prome, 
Lower Burma. 

K.-R. Saigon, C.C. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Tay Ninh, C.C. 1 (pelt). 

Viverricula malaccensis Gmelin. SMALL INDIAN CIVET. 

Viverra malaccensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. 13, p. 92, 1788 Malacca. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 2; Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 3; Saigon, 
C C. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2; Kratie, C. 1; Pakha, T. 1; 
Phang Ran, A. 2; Saigon, C.C. 2. 

DEL. 1931-32. Bomkieng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 1; Langson, T. 4; Nape", L. 2; Ngai 
Tio, T. 3; Phu Rieng, C.C. 2; Thuy Ba, Quangtri, A. 2. 

As between V. malaccensis of the Malay States and V. m. pallida 
of southeastern China, the Indo-Chinese small civets undoubtedly 
fall with the southern form which is smaller and has the upper side 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

of the terminal part of the tail more extensively whitish. In the 
absence of material from Siam representing V. m. thai (Kloss, Jour. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 3, p. 352, 1919), no attempt has been made 
at any finer distinction than that between malaccensis and pallida. 
Geographical probabilities, however, favor the assumption that 
gradation between malaccensis and pallida should be found some- 
where in Siam or Indo-China. 

Prionodon (Pardictis) pardicolor Hodgson. SPOTTED TIGER 
CIVET. 

Prionodon pardicolor Hodgson, Calcutta Jour. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 57, pi. 1, figs. 

3, 6, 1842 Nepal. 
Pardictis pardicolor presina Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 499, 1925 

Ngai Tio, Tonkin. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 6. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 3; Bao Ha, T. 1; "Hanoi," T. 1 
(pelt); Ngai Tio, T. 1; Xieng Kuang, L. 2. 

The series from Chapa shows some variation in size and depth 
of color and, although comparison with the type of "presina" has 
not been made, the inference is very strong that it cannot be main- 
tained as a highland race. The specimens at hand have the throat, 
chest and inner sides of the legs rich ochraceous buff. Measurements 
of three adult males are: total length 350, 370, 372; tail 350, 335, 
360; hind foot 62, 65, 62. Condylo-basal length of an adult male 
skull is 71.6. 

Chrotogale owstoni Thomas. OWSTON'S CIVET (Plate XI, facing 
p. 220). 

Chrotogale pwstonl Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 500, 1912 Yen Bai, 
Songkoi River, Tonkin; ibid., p. 499, 1925; ibid., pp. 47-48, pis. 1, 2, 1927. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 1. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2. 

REC. 1925-29. Nganson, T. 1; Thai Nien, T. 1 (pelt); "Tonkin," 
4 (pelts); Xieng Kuang, L. 2 (1 pelt). 

With the exception of the type, the specimens above listed include 
all known examples of this rare and interesting civet. The one from 
Muong Moun obtained by R. E. Wheeler is the first fully adult 
specimen with complete skin and perfect skull to be examined. 
Flesh measurements are: total length 1,010; tail vertebrae 490; hind 
foot 91. Skulls (cf and 9): greatest length 118.3, 105.2; condylo- 
basal length 114, 102.3; palatal length 56.9, 51.8; zygomatic width 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 257 

51.6, 50.3; interorbital constriction 15.9, 15.4; width of braincase 

36.7, 34.9; median length of nasals 31, 26.5; width between audital 
bullae 11.6, 10.9; last molar to foramen magnum 53.8, 51; upper 
toothrow including canine 42.6, 36.5; space between canine and 
outer incisor 6, 5.9; width across outer incisors 14.4, 11.9; lower 
toothrow including canine 47.1, 40.9. 

The two specimens from Chapa are male and female and very 
old with worn teeth and highly developed sagittal crests extending 
the entire length of the crania. In the male skull the audital bullae 
are extraordinarily reduced in size, being at least a third smaller 
than those in the mature skull from Muong Moun. 

A feature of color not mentioned by Thomas is a narrow mid- 
ventral line of rich ochraceous extending from the breast to the 
inguinal region. The two dark markings on the upper side of the 
proximal part of the tail are essentially repetitions of the transverse 
markings of the back. They are confined to the top and sides 
of the tail and are not completed below. The terminal two-thirds of 
the tail is black all around. 

The labels of both the specimens collected by Willoughby Lowe 
carry the notation that the stomachs contained earthworms. Al- 
though meager, this information is welcome as being the first intima- 
tion of the animal's habits which may have some relation to its 
peculiar dentition. 

Cynogale bennetti Gray. WEB-FOOTED CIVET. 

Cynogale bennettii Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 88, 1836 Sumatra. 
REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 1. 

Paradoxurus hermaphroditus laotum Gyldenstolpe. COMMON 
PALM CIVET. 

Paradoxurus hermaphroditus laotum Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. 

Handl., 57, No. 2, p. 26, 1917 Chieng Hai, Siam. 
Paradoxurus birmanicus Wroughton, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 25, p. 51, 

1917 Mingun, near Sagaing, Upper Burma. 

K.-R. Saigon, C.C. 2. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 1; Hu, A. 1; Kratie, C. 1; Lao Bao, 
A.I. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 4. 

REC. 1925-29. Hue, A. 3; Kontoum, A. 1; Quangtri, A. 2; 
Tay Ninh, C.C. 2. 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Among these specimens, several have no skulls and others are 
immature. Variation in size of teeth and audital bullae is consider- 
able and identification is doubtful. Those from Cochin China should 
perhaps be referred to cochinensis (Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(8), 7, p. 635, 1911), but the relation of this to minor and ravus is 
not clear and variation is so great that without comparable material 
representing all the names proposed, there is little to be gained by 
attempts to identify individual specimens. One adult from Hue 
seems indistinguishable from ravus, and it is evident that the presence 
of black on the crown can be of significance only when applied as 
an average. The specimen from Chapa is a small female, rather 
more fulvous in color than usual. G. M. Allen has recently referred 
specimens from Hainan to laotum, a name which takes precedence 
over birmanicus used by Wroughton and Thomas. P. exitus Schwarz, 
from the vicinity of Canton, China, is still earlier and, since it was 
based on a single skull, there is little to show how laotum may differ 
from it. 

Paradoxurus cross! Gray. 

Paradoxurus crossi Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 66, 1832 Nepal. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Lung Lunh, A. 1. 

A single specimen, not fully mature, may be referred provisionally 
to this species although it has not been compared with Indian 
material. Except for its dark tail, feet, and slight head markings, 
itjis uniformly dull and faintly grizzled whitish without any suggestion 
of spots or stripes. 

Arctogalidia leucotis Horsfield. WHITE-EARED PALM CIVET. 

Paradoxuriis leucotis Horsfield, Cat. East Ind. Mus., p. 66, 1851 Tenasserim. 
DEL. 1931-32. Paleng, L. 1; Thateng, L. 2. 
REC. 1925-29. Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

These appear to furnish the only records of this species from 
Indo-China. 

Arctictis binturong Raffles. BINTURONG. 

Viverra binturong Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 13, p. 253, 1822 Sumatra. 
REC. 1925-29. "Tonkin," 1. 

Paguma larvata H. Smith. MASKED PALM CIVET. 

Gulo larvatus H. Smith, Griffith's Anim. King., 2, p. 281, pi., 1827 no locality. 

Paguma larvata Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 3, p. 377, 1909; G. M. 

Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 359, p. 5, 1929 lower Yangtze Valley. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 259 

Paguma larvata rivalis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 618, Dec., 
1921 Ichang on the Yangtze, southeastern Szechwan. 

K.-R. Baurong, Szechwan 1; Mouping, Szechwan 1. 

G. M. Allen, after studying a large amount of material, has 
recently concluded that only two continental races of P. larvata are 
recognizable. These are larvata of central China, paler and more 
generally grayish, and intrudens of southwestern China, Burma, and 
Tonkin, darker and more rufescent. If this be correct, extremes of 
paleness might be expected in western Szechwan and of rufescence in 
Tonkin. This seems to be the case and specimens from Fukien, while 
doubtless referable to larvata, are perhaps somewhat intermediate. 

The specimen from Mouping, which is the northernmost yet 
recorded, is very light-colored, especially on the sides where it is 
more silvery than any other specimen examined. The upper side 
of its tail is entirely black and this extends a short distance on the 
back. It agrees fairly well with the type of rivalis except in its tail 
which is unique. The type has the tail wholly light-colored, but the 
tip is missing. A topotype in bad condition has about two-thirds 
of the tail black and another specimen from Sui Ling, near Chung- 
king, has a tail with the usual proportion of black. It is evident, 
therefore, that there may be much variation in markings and, 
although specimens from the upper Yangtze probably average paler 
than those from Fukien and the lower Yangtze, they are collectively 
separable from intrudens on the basis of paler color and further 
division seems unnecessary. 

Paguma larvata intrudens Wroughton. SOUTHERN MASKED 
PALM CIVET. 

Paguma larvata intrudens Wroughton, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 19, p. 

793, 1910 near Myitkyina, Upper Burma. 
Paguma larvata yunalis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 617, Dec., 

1921 Yen-Yuen-Sian, southern Szechwan. 

K.-R. Lai Chau, T. 1; Muong Moun, T. 1; Muong Mo, T. 1; 
Nguluko, Yunnan 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 4; Hue, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32 Paleng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 1; Nape", L. 3; Xieng Kuang, L. 3. 

The masked palm-civet of central Tonkin has been recorded by 
Thomas under the name yunalis, but this, as concluded by G. M. 
Allen (Am. Mus. Novit., No. 359, pp. 4-8, July, 1929), seems to be 
a synonym of intrudens. Yunnan specimens are essentially similar 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

to those from Tonkin although the usual minor variations are present. 
One of the Tonkin specimens is more grayish than the others and 
perhaps may be an indication of a slight dimorphism which would 
account for some of the wide variation recorded for the species. In 
this specimen, instead of cinnamon rufous, the back and the proximal 
part of the tail are olivaceous gray, somewhat the shade called by 
Ridgway Buffy Brown. The under parts are dull whitish instead 
of buffy. This specimen, therefore, is very similar to larvata from 
Fukien, whereas intrudens is usually more rufescent. In one example 
the nuchal white is expanded into a broad patch with scarcely any 
black between it and the cinnamon rufous of the back. In two others, 
this white is reduced to a narrow line surrounded by pure black, 
this latter extending to the interscapular region. 

One individual, which externally appears quite as mature as the 
others, still retains its milk teeth, all of which have the crowns 
badly worn, indicating either that the teeth are retained for an 
unusually long time or that some exceptionally abrasive food is 
habitually taken. 

Paguma larvata vagans (Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 3, 
p. 73, 1918) from Siam has not been examined. 

Herpestes urva Hodgson. CRAB-EATING MONGOOSE. 

Gulo urva Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 5, p. 283, 1836 Nepal. 
DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 10; Langson, T. 1; Phuqui, A. 2; 
Xieng Kuang, L. 2. 

Herpestes exilis Gervais. ANNAM MONGOOSE. 

Herpestes exilis Gervais, Voy. Bonite, 1, p. 32, pi. 3, figs. 7-9, 1841 Tourane, 
Annam. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 5. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hue, A. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Col des Nuages, A. 1; Hue, A. 3; Thula-hun, 
A. 2. 

These show considerable variation and one specimen has the 
ferruginous of the head continued down the middle of the back to 
the base of the tail. 

Charronia flavigula Boddaert. INDIAN MARTEN. 

Mustela flavigula Boddaert, Blench. Anim., p. 88, 1785 northern India. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 1; Hue, A. 1; Kontoum, A. 1. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 261 

Mustela kathiah Hodgson. YELLOW-BELLIED WEASEL. 

Mustela (Putoriiis) kathiah Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 4, p. 702, 1835 
Nepal. 

K.-R. Lieng San, T. 1; Muong Mo, T. 1; Phong Saly, L. 1. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 5. 
REC. 1925-29. Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

No distinction appears between Indo-Chinese specimens and 
others from Nepal and Sikkim. Most of the specimens in the 
British Museum are females or without measurements. Collector's 
measurements of males and females of maximum size are, respec- 
tively: total length 487, 337; head and body 292, 207; tail 195, 130; 
hind foot 48, 35. 

A specimen from Fukien, referred by G. M. Allen to kathiah, 
is much paler than Indian material, and if it has the normal color 
for that region it may be possible to recognize Matschie's melli or 
Milne-Edwards's astutus. 

Mustela sibirica moupinensis Milne-Edwards. MOUPING WEASEL. 

Putorius moupinensis Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
7, p. 92, 1870 Mouping, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Baurong, Szechwan 1 (pelt); Tupakeo, Szechwan 1; 
Tiyu, Gomba, Szechwan 1. 

An adult female taken Sept. 9 is still in summer pelage. Com- 
parison with a specimen from Sikkim representing sithhemachalana 
shows only such differences as might be of subspecific importance. 
The locality Tupakeo is only a few miles north of Mouping, so the 
specimen from there may be taken as topotypical. 

Mustela strigidorsa Gray. STRIPED WEASEL. 

Miistela strigodorsa "Hodgson," Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 191, 1853 
Sikkim. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 1. 

This is an adult female agreeing in every respect with the type 
which also is a female. Collector's measurements are: total length 
436; tail 150; hind foot 49. Besides the type, there are in the British 
Museum four other specimens of this rare weasel, two from Sikkim, 
one from Nepal, and one from Upper Burma. The only other 
preserved specimen of which there is record seems to be that listed 
by Thomas from Thagata, Tenasserim (Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 
Gen., (2), 10, p. 10, 1892). 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 
Lutra tarayensis Hodgson. SMOOTH INDIAN OTTER. 

Lutra tarayensis Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 8, p. 319, 1839 Terai, Nepal. 

WULSIN 1924. Mekong River, L. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Pakse, L. 1; Thateng, L. 9 (6 ale.). 

REC. 1925-29. Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

This appears to be the most common otter of the Mekong. The 
specimens are mostly immature, eight being newly born young. 

Lutra sumatrana Gray. HAIRY-NOSED OTTER. 

Lutra sumatrana Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 125, fig., 1865 Sumatra. 
REC. 1925-29. "Annam," 2. 

Lutra lutra chinensis Gray. COMMON OTTER. 

Lutra chinensis Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 1, p. 280, 1837 southeastern 
China. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2; Hoi Xuan, A. 1; Hug, A. 1. 

A partly grown otter from Laos belongs to the lutra series and 
probably should be referred to L. I. chinensis, a name recently used 
by G. M. Allen for specimens from Hainan and Fukien. Others 
from Tonkin and Annam, nearly adult, are rather small and charac- 
terized by white or buffy white chins. A female from Hoi Xuan 
has the entire interramial region and anterior throat nearly pure 
white to the roots of the hairs. Its skull has a condylo-basal length 
of 100 and zygomatic width of 68.8. 

Aonyx cinerea Illiger. CLAWLESS OTTER. 

Lutra cinerea Illiger, Abhandl. Akad. Berlin, (1811), p. 99, 1815 Batavia, 
Java. 

K.-R. Lao Bao, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 1. 

A fine adult female obtained by Coolidge is in the collection. 
A somewhat younger female was taken by Delacour in Laos. 

Meles meles leucurus Hodgson. ASIATIC BADGER. 

Taxidea leucura Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 16, p. 763, pis. 29-31, 1847 
region of Lhasa, Thibet. 

K.-R. Near Hlagong, district of Tatsienlu, Szechwan 1. 

A badger obtained by Stevens in the highlands of northwestern 
Szechwan is perhaps best referred to under the name leucurus. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 263 

Whether this differs from leptorynchus, recently used by G. M. 
Allen for Chinese badgers, may not be certain, but leucurus, having 
priority, will stand for some Asiatic form unless for other reasons 
it should be unavailable. Anderson (Yunnan Exped., 1, p. 197, 
1878) states that he has compared the types of leucurus, leptorynchus, 
and chinensis without finding significant distinctions. 

Arctonyx collaris F. Cuvier. HOG BADGER. 

Arctonyx collaris F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., part 51, 2 pp., pi., 1825 
Bhutan. 

K.-R. Tiyu, Gomba, Szechwan 1 (pelt). 

A hunter's skin without skull from southwestern Szechwan may 
be referred to this species which G. M. Allen regards as ranging 
over all of southern China. 

Arctonyx collaris dictator Thomas. SIAMESE HOG BADGER. 

Arctonyx dictator Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 5, p. 424, 1910 Trang, 

lower Siam. 
lArctonyx annaeus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 524, 1921 

Nhatrang, Annam. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 2. 
DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 4. 

A complete skin and skull and an additional hunter's skin are 
in the collection. These agree in large size with A. dictator as 
described but differ from each other quite markedly in color. Col- 
lector's measurements of an adult male are: total length 909; tail 
234; hind foot 126. Skull: greatest length 168; condylo-basal length 
155; zygomatic width 87.2; least interorbital width 34.4; greatest 
diameter of upper molar 17. 

Under the name annaeus, an immature specimen has been 
described from Nhatrang, Annam, and a skin without skull is 
recorded from Phuqui, Annam. No conclusive evidence is presented 
to distinguish them from dictator, and until this is forthcoming it 
seems best to consider the name annaeus of doubtful status. Speci- 
mens from southern Laos are fully as large as northern ones. 

Helictis moschata ferreo-grisea Hilzheimer. CHINESE FERRET 
BADGER. 

Helictis ferreo-griseus Hilzheimer, Zool. Anz., 29, p. 298, 1905 Hankau, 
Hupeh, China. 

K.-R. Baurong, Szechwan 1 (pelt). 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

A hunter's skin without skull obtained by Stevens is tentatively 
referred to this form which G. M. Allen has regarded as occupying 
a considerable range in China. It is somewhat paler and more 
hoary than specimens from Fukien and its ears are entirely light- 
colored instead of being darker behind. 

Helictis taxilla Thomas. TONKIN FERRET BADGER. 

Helictis taxilla Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., part 2 (1925), p. 500, July, 
1925 Ngai Tio, Tonkin. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 5. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 15. 

REC. 1925-29. Ngai Tio, T. 2; Xieng Kuang, L. 8. 

In this large series the extent and arrangement of the white 
markings about the head are fairly constant. In a few the brown 
spot behind the eye is almost entirely wanting, and in others the 
white on the cheeks is considerably reduced. The color of the 
under parts is more variable, the extent of pale, or ochraceous, 
self-colored hairs ranging from one in which the entire under parts 
and the front sides of the fore and hind legs are included to others 
in which the legs are wholly dark all around and in which the color 
of the sides invades the under parts almost to the midventral line. 
In several a prominent white spot is developed on each side of the 
front of each hind leg near its junction with the body. Measure- 
ments of five males as taken by the collector are as follows: total 
length 464 (437-504); tail 143.4 (131-151); hind foot 59.2 (58-62). 

Helictis (Melogale) personata laotum Thomas. BURMESE 
FERRET BADGER. 

Melogale personata laotum Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, p. 194, 

Feb., 1922 Nan, Siam. 
? Melogale tonquinia Thomas, supra cit., p. 195 Yen Bai, Songkoi River, 

Tonkin. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 2. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hue, A. 2. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 5. 

REC. 1925-29. Hue, A. 5; Kontoum, A. 1. 

Three of these are fine adults which agree in measurements with 
those given for the subspecies laotum. In the original description, 
Thomas suggested this form might range into Annam. 

The status of H. tonquinia, which was based on a single imma- 
ture female, seems doubtful. There is considerable variation in 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 265 

the size of the teeth of specimens from one region, but the teeth in the 
type of tonquinia are exceeded in size by all other available specimens. 
As suggested by Allen (Am. Mus. Novit., No. 358, p. 6, 1929), 
the recognition of Melogale as a full genus seems inadvisable, such a 
course being only a means of obscuring obviously close relationships. 
The characters of the baculum adduced by Thomas probably need 
further confirmation. In these specimens taken at the same time 
and place, the baculum is bifid in one case and trifid in the other or 
at least with a definite third protuberance. 

Helictis (Melogale) personata pierrei Bonhote. 

Helictis pierrei Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 12, p. 592, 1903 Saigon, 
Cochin China. 

REC. 1925-29. Djiring, A. 1. 

In recording the specimen from Djiring, Annam, under this name, 
Thomas (1928, p. 146) says, "Whether pierrei is really different 
from personata remains to be seen." The same is probably true as 
to whether or not laotum differs from pierrei and, although material 
representing laotum is now abundant, that of personata and pierrei 
is still scanty. 

Cuon rutilans Miiller. WILD DOG. 

Canis rutilans Muller, Verhandl. Zool. Zoogd., pp. 27, 51, 1839 "Bengal." 

K.-R. Saigon, C.C. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Kontoum, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 1 (pelt). 

Vulpes vulpes subsp. COMMON Fox. 

K.-R. "Szechwan," 1 (pelt). 

This probably represents Matschie's aurantioluteus, but a series 
of specimens will be necessary to determine its proper status. 

Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray. RACCOON DOG. 

Canis procyonoides Gray, Illus. Ind. Zool., 2, pi. 1, 1834 southeastern China. 
REC. 1925-29. Langson, T. 2. 

Helarctos malayanus Raffles. MALAY BEAR. 

Ursus malayanux Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 13, p. 254, 1822 Sumatra. 
K.-R. Lao Fou Chai, L. 1 (skull). 
DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 1 (juv.). 
REC. 1925-29. Hu, A. 1; Quangtri, A. 1. 



266 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

The skull of an exceptionally large male was obtained in Laos 
by Coolidge. This has a zygomatic width of 223 mm. (8.75 inches) 
and the estimated basal length is about the same. This is perhaps 
the maximum size for the species since the largest skull examined 
by Blanford is recorded as "8.5 inches long (basal length) and 8.3 
broad." 

Selenarctos thibetanus subsp. HIMALAYAN BLACK BEAR. 

K.-R. Lao Fou Chai, L. 2 (skulls). 
D. & L. 1929-30. Hu, A. 1 (skull). 

These unsexed skulls appear to be about the same size as others 
recorded from northern India and they scarcely can be referred to 
metti of Fukien, which is supposed to be much smaller. The upper 
molar in two skulls measures 27-28 mm. in length. 

Ailurus fulgens styani Thomas. SMALL PANDA. 

Ailurus fulgens styani Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 10, p. 251, 1902 
Yang-liu-pa, northwestern Szechwan. 

K.-R. Baurong, Szechwan 1 (pelt); Tiyu, Gomba, Szechwan 1 
(pelt); Wushi, Szechwan 1 (pelt). 

Three hunter's skins, purchased by Stevens, are practically com- 
plete but without skulls or measurements. They exhibit considerable 
variation in color apparently due mainly to season. One which is 
doubtless in unworn winter coat is very rich and dark, the entire 
median upper parts and the lighter annulations of the tail Mahogany 
Red to Chestnut. The dark annulations of the tail and a broad 
tip are black. In another, more worn, the head and shoulders are 
still Chestnut but the darker annulations of the tail and the remaining 
upper parts are Cinnamon Rufous to Hazel. The lighter annula- 
tions of the tail are Ochraceous Buff and the narrow tip brownish. 
A third, still more worn, has the lighter rings of the tail Light Buff, 
almost whitish. 

Ailuropoda melanoleuca David. GIANT PANDA. 

Ursus melanoleucus David, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 5, Bull., 

p. 13, 1869 Mouping, Szechwan. 
Ailuropoda melanoleuca Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, (5), Zool., 

13, art. 10, 1870. 
Ailuropus melanoleucus Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 

7, Bull., p. 92, 1871; Rech. Mamm., pp. 321-328, pis. 50-60, 1873. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 267 

K.-R. Yachow district, Szechwan 1 (skin and skull); Yehli 
district, Szechwan 6 (1 skin and skeleton, 5 pelts). 

As variously announced elsewhere, the crowning exploit of the 
Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition was the trailing and shooting of a 
giant panda by the brothers Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt. 
This took place April 13, 1929, in the Yehli district of southwestern 
Szechwan. The skin of the animal and the complete skeleton were 
carefully preserved and reached Field Museum in excellent condition. 
Besides the skin of the one shot by themselves, the Roosevelts were 
able by purchase or barter to obtain from native sources several 
additional skins, mostly bereft of feet and claws and otherwise 
somewhat imperfect but of much value for comparative purposes. 
One of these served as a companion piece with the perfect one in 
making a habitat group which has been installed in William V. 
Kelley Hall of Field Museum. Since the return of the Roosevelts 
a further complete skin with skull and leg bones has been received 
by Field Museum. This was obtained at the instance of the Roose- 
velts by L. R. Crook of Yachow, Szechwan. 

The following notes on the habits and distribution of the animal 
have been published by the Roosevelts. 1 "The natives know him 
as the beishung or white bear. To the best of our judgment he has 
a fairly wide area of distribution but is to be found only in pockets, 
and is never abundant even in these pockets. He lives in bamboo 
jungles in altitudes varying between six and fourteen thousand feet. 
We came to the conclusion that where there were no bamboo jungles, 
there were no beishung. . . . Where he actually exists, his droppings 
are frequent and easy to find, and even easier to identify. They 
are egg-shaped, from five to seven inches in length (for the adult) 
and composed of partially digested bamboo shoots. The Muping 
and Yehli districts were the only places where, after diligent and 
unceasing inquiry throughout the trip, we could be convinced of the 
presence of the giant panda. . . . 

"The beishung does not hibernate. We found fresh signs in 
regions where the brown and black bears were hibernating, and the 
one we shot was living in a locality where the black bears had not 
yet awaked from their winter's nap. We came upon his tracks one 
morning in the newly fallen snow. They were partly obliterated, 
for four or five hours had passed since he went by. Three hours' 
trailing through dense jungle brought us to the spot which he had 

1 Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt, Trailing the Giant Panda, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, New York, 1929. 



268 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

selected for his siesta. We caught sight of him emerging from the 
hollow bole of a giant fir tree, and fired simultaneously." 

The complete skeleton of Ailuropoda included in this collection 
is especially deserving of a thorough study which doubtless will 
throw further light on the relationships of the animal. Superficial 
observations, therefore, are deferred until such a study can be made. 

Petaurista lylei badiatus Thomas. BAY FLYING SQUIRREL. 

Petaurista lylei badiatus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 501, 1925 Ngai 
Tio, Tonkin. 

K.-R. Muong Bourn, T. 1; Muong Moun, T. 2; Tuan Gao, T. 2. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 5. 
DEL. 1931-32. Phukong Ntoul, L. 1. 

EEC. 1925-29. Dalat, A. 1; Ngai Tio, T. 3; Phuqui, A. 1; Xieng 
Kuang, L. 1. 

Two magnificent specimens have the following measurements, 
taken by the collector: total length 1,125, 1,025; tail 635, 580; hind 
foot 94, 90.5. The largest skull has the occipito-nasal length 80.2. 

No comparison has been made with typical lylei from neighboring 
localities in northern Siam. 

Petaurista annamensis Thomas. ANNAM FLYING SQUIRREL. 

Petaurista annamensis Thomas, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 23, p. 204, 
1914 Bali, near Nhatrang, Annam. 

REC. 1925-29. Kontoum, A. 1; Tay Ninh, C.C. 3. 

This is regarded by Thomas as a distinct species occurring in 
the same region with badiatus, but the characters assigned to it seem 
very slight and likely to be subject to variation. 

Petaurista marica Thomas. SPOTTED FLYING SQUIRREL. 

Petaurista marica Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 9, p. 687, 1912 near 
Mongtze, Yunnan. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 1. 
REC. 1925-29. Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

Pteromys (Hylopetes) alboniger Hodgson. BLACK AND WHITE 
FLYING SQUIRREL. 

Sciuropterus alboniger Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 5, p. 231, 1836 Nepal. 
K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 1. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 269 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 4; Djiring, A. 1; Hu, A. 1; Kontoum, 
A. 2. 

DEL. 1931-32. Pakse, L. 1. 

The specimen from Tonkin agrees closely with examples from 
Hodgson's original series. It is a small female and somewhat smaller 
than others from Annam previously recorded by Thomas. 

Pteromys (Hylopetes) spadiceus Blyth. BROWNISH FLYING 
SQUIRREL. 

Sciuroptents spadiceus Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 16, p. 867, pi. 36, fig. 1, 
1847 Arakan, India. 

REC. 1925-29. Kontoum, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Paleng, L. 1; Thateng, L. 2. 

Belomys pearsoni blandus subsp. nov. 

Type from Muong Moun, south of Lai Chau, Tonkin. No. 32,312 
Field Museum of Natural History. Adult male. Collected March 16, 
1929, by J. Van Tyne. Orig. No. 32. 

Diagnosis. Similar to B. pearsoni of Sikkim, but smaller, with 
decidedly smaller teeth and shorter, broader nasals. Similar to B. 
trichotis but with rufescent instead of white under parts. 

Color. Practically as in B. pearsoni, rich ochraceous shades 
prevailing throughout. 

Skull. Markedly smaller than in pearsoni, slightly smaller than 
in trichotis; nasals broad, scarcely diminishing in width posteriorly; 
teeth relatively small. 

Measurements. Type, measured in flesh by collector: total 
length 373; tail 180; hind foot 38. Skull: greatest length 41.5; 
basilar length 34.5; zygomatic breadth 24.7; mastoid breadth 21.5; 
length of nasals 11.5; breadth of nasals behind 4.5; upper toothrow 
8.9 (10.1 in pearsoni}. 

Remarks. This is doubtless only a slight western form of B. 
pearsoni. A specimen from Bao Ha, Tonkin, in the British Museum 
is without skull or measurements and was recorded by Thomas 
(1925, p. 501) with no specific designation. Comparison has been 
made with two specimens in the British Museum from Sikkim and 
Assam, representing pearsoni, and two from Chindwin, Burma, 
representing trichotis. The new form seems to agree with pearsoni 
in color, while in size and cranial characters it is nearer to trichotis. 



270 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

B. kaleensis of Formosa is closely similar in color, but in this also 
the teeth are large. 

Specimens examined. Chapa, T. 1 (D. & L. 1929-30); Muong 
Moun, T. 1 (K.-R.). 

Ratufa bicolor smith! Robinson and Kloss. SMITH'S GIANT 
SQUIRREL. 

Ratufa bicolor smithi Robinson and Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, p. 89, 
1922 Langbian Peaks, Annam. 

REC. 1925-29. Djiring, A. 3; Tay Ninh, C.C. 2. 

Ratufa melanopepla leucogenys Kloss. WHITE-CHEEKED GIANT 
SQUIRREL. 

Ratufa melanopepla leucogenys Kloss, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 43, 1916 
Lem Ngop, southeastern Siam. 

REC. 1925-29. Sambor, C. 1. 
Ratufa gigantea McClelland. GIANT SQUIRREL. 

Sciurus giganteus McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 150, 1839 Assam, 
India. 

K.-R. Near Lao Fou Chai, L. 1; Muong Yo, L. 2; Phong Saly, 
L. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Boloven, L. 1; Chapa, T. 2; Hoi Xuan, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Banphone, L. 2; Bantion, L. 1; Thateng, L. 3. 

REC. 1925-29. Nape", L. 4; Phuqui, A. 8; Tarn Dao, T. 5; Xieng 
Kuang, L. 1. 

As compared with a series from Sikkim, Indo-Chinese specimens 
show no pronounced difference in color, but their skulls are charac- 
terized by various minor peculiarities including darker-colored 
incisors, narrower nasals, and larger, higher, audital bullae. Since 
no material from Assam or Hainan is at hand, the determination 
of the subspecific status of these specimens has not been attempted. 

Callosciurus erythraeus hendeei subsp. nov. HENDEE'S TONKIN 
SQUIRREL. 

Type from Chapa, Tonkin. No. 32,290 Field Museum of Natural 
History. Adult male. Collected Feb. 14, 1929, by Russell W. 
Hendee. Orig. No. 5,168. 

Diagnosis. Similar to C. e. castaneoventris of Hainan, but larger 
and darker, the feet more blackish, the ears more ochraceous, and 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 271 

the fore legs and facial region paler grayish. Similar to C. e. nagarum 
of Assam but coloration throughout slightly darker and more intense, 
the feet with intense black toes instead of merely sooty, the outer 
sides of the ears more definitely ochraceous, and the back less uniform. 
Similar to C. e. gordoni but less brownish in color throughout and 
usually without a midventral stripe. 

Color. Upper parts finely grizzled throughout usually producing 
a general olivaceous effect; middle of back varying from a color 
practically like that of the sides to a concentration of brownish or 
blackish which in extreme cases takes the form of a definite dark 
median line from the shoulders to the rump; outer sides of fore and 
hind legs slightly more grayish than body; sides of face and chin 
rather more grayish than surrounding parts; under parts clear 
deep ferruginous (Mahogany Red of Ridgway), rarely with traces 
of a grizzled median stripe on chest; feet and hands proximally 
blackish with a fine speckling of gray, distally intense clear black 
including all of toes; ears grizzled within, pale buffy ochraceous 
without or even whitish in rather sharp contrast to surrounding 
pelage; tail with the hairs having three to four broad bands of black 
alternating with pale whitish to ochraceous light bands, the terminal 
band being light and in fresh condition dominating the color of the 
entire tail. The subterminal band on the tail hairs is much broader 
than the others and gradually widens toward the tip where it finally 
extends to the roots of the hairs and may, when the terminal light 
band is worn away, produce a long wholly black brush at the end 
of the tail. 

Skull. Smaller throughout than in castaneoventris and ningpoensis. 

Measurements. Type: total length 437; tail 213; hind foot 55. 
Skull of type: greatest length 55; condylo-basal length 51; zygomatic 
width 32.6; interorbital width 28.8; upper toothrow 10.2. 

Remarks. A study of the entire group to which it belongs has 
been necessary before coming to the conclusion that this squirrel 
from Tonkin and Laos should be named. In 1925, when Thomas 
first reported on mammals from Tonkin, he referred specimens 
from Thai Nien and Bao Ha to castaneoventris, a species described 
by Gray from a specimen collected by Reeves in China and having 
no exact locality. Robinson and Kloss (Rec. Ind. Mus., 15, p. 199, 
1918) had previously expressed the opinion that Gray's type could 
not be distinguished from the squirrel of the island of Hainan named 
insularis by Allen (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 22, p. 473, 1906). 



272 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Therefore, they proposed that Hainan be accepted as the type locality 
of castaneoventris and that insularis fall as a synonym. Thomas, 
finding his Tonkin specimens very similar to others from Hainan, 
agreed with Robinson and Kloss as to the disposition of insularis, 
but not as to the type locality of castaneoventris which he thought 
more likely to be the "mainland of southwestern China, more or 
less in the region of Canton." A reexamination of the subject with 
large series from both Tonkin and Hainan leads me to agree, at least 
for the present, with Robinson and Kloss rather than with Thomas, 
whose material from Hainan in the British Museum was very scanty 
and inconclusive. 

Gray's type of castaneoventris is an old specimen considerably 
shrunken, but apparently not much altered in color. It cannot be 
distinguished in any way from Hainan specimens, whereas it differs 
from the Tonkin form in the various characters enumerated above, 
including size, color of feet, ears, facial region, etc. The whitish- 
tipped tail appears to be of less importance for distinguishing the 
Hainan form than these other characters, for both whitish and 
ochraceous tails are found on the mainland. The type does agree 
with the Tonkin form in the color of the under parts, however, and 
in this respect it differs from specimens from the mainland of China 
in the Fukien region which are somewhat more richly colored than 
those called ningpoensis from farther north. No specimens have 
been examined from the region between Fukien and Tonkin, and it 
is quite possible or even probable that when these are obtained they 
will prove to have still darker under parts and furnish a better basis 
for the supposition of Thomas that the type came from the region 
of Canton. Until then it seems necessary to assume Hainan as the 
type locality and in any case the distinction of a separate form in 
Tonkin is justified. 

Having distinguished the Tonkin squirrels from castaneoventris, 
it becomes necessary to consider their affinities with forms to the 
north and west, the chief of these being nagarum and gordoni. From 
gordoni they differ in more grayish coloration, in their light-colored 
contrasting ears, and in the absence of a well-defined midventral 
stripe. In a series of more than a hundred from Tonkin, Annam 
and Laos, only three show traces of a midventral stripe. These are 
specimens in the British Museum from Backan, Chora, and Tarn 
Dao, eastern Tonkin, and they also show the most definite blackish 
dorsal stripes in the series. Slight tendency to concentration of 
blackish or brownish in the middorsal region appears occasionally 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 273 

in specimens throughout Tonkin, a character which is doubtless 
variable but which has not been observed in any other subspecies 
of the erythraeus series unless atrodorsalis and its forms be included. 
In fact, these dark-backed specimens with a slight midventral line, 
although very much darker, are quite suggestive of C. atrodorsalis 
of northern Siam and the possibility that atrodorsalis and erythraeus 
may inosculate is probably still to be considered. 

In one of his later papers on Indo-Chinese mammals, Thomas 
(1929, p. 836) refers a large series of squirrels from Phuqui, Annam, 
to subspecies nagarum, evidently being especially influenced by the 
black-tipped tails which are shown throughout the series. A study 
of these and others, however, seems to indicate that the black at 
the end of the tail may be exposed by the wearing away of the light 
tips to the hairs to such an extent that the terminal third of the tail 
becomes wholly black. There is variation both individual and local 
which may partially account for some cases, but it is certain that 
wear is largely responsible for it. In spite of the large number of 
specimens of the erythraeus series that are in collections, very few 
are available to give any range of pelage changes due to season. 
Nearly all collectors have worked in the dry or winter season, from 
December to March, and, although pelage changes may be inferred, 
they cannot be followed in detail. Specimens in Field Museum 
from northern Laos and Tonkin include some with unworn tails, 
having fresh light tips to the hairs and others in which the terminal 
part of the tail is black and evidently not in fresh condition. Also, 
in a large series of gordoni in the British Museum, all from one 
locality, both conditions may be seen. 

The distinction of hendeei and nagarum consists mainly in the 
general more saturate color of the former. This extends to all parts 
and wherever special comparison is made is found to hold true. 
The under parts in hendeei are the Mahogany Red of Ridgway 
while those of nagarum are several shades lighter, Sanford's Brown 
or, at most, not stronger than Burnt Sienna. The upper parts also 
average paler in nagarum and the ears, although having light pro- 
ectotes, are not so sharply marked and contrasted as in hendeei. In 
nagarum, the feet are grizzled to the claws, whereas in hendeei the 
toes and often the sides of the feet are intense pure black. 

The Sciurus erythraeus pranis of Kloss, from southwestern Siam, 
which was later considered by its describer as allied to atrodorsalis, 
has not been seen, but the description indicates a much paler animal 
with a gray pectoral line. 



274 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Specimens examined. Total number 110, from the following 
localities: Annam: Hoi Xuan 2; 2 Lung Lunh 3; 2 Phuqui 3, 2 24 ; 3 
Than Hoa I. 2 Laos: Lao Fou Chai I; 1 Muong Yo 2; 1 Phong Saly 5; 1 
Xieng Kuang I. 3 Tonkin: Backan S,- 3 Bao Ha 7; 3 Chapa 2, 1 21 ; 2 
Chora 1 ; 3 Isla de Table 1 ; 2 Langson 1 ; 3 Lieng San 1 ; l Muong Bourn 1 ; ! 
Muong Mo 5; 1 Nganson 3; 3 Pakha 3; 2 Tarn Dao 7; 3 Thai Nien 4; 3 
Ye Yen Sun I. 1 

Gallosciurus erythraeus gordoni Anderson. GORDON'S SQUIRREL. 

Sciurus gordoni Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 140, 1871 Bhamo, 
Upper Burma. 

K.-R. Thirty-seven miles north of Bhamo 1. 

This specimen, practically a topotype, agrees with a large series 
in the British Museum from "Salween Divide." 

Callosciurus erythraeus michianus Robinson and Wroughton. 

YUNNAN SQUIRREL. 

Sciurus castaneiventris michianus Robinson and Wroughton, Jour. Fed. Malay 
States Mus., 4, p. 234, 1911 Mee Ghee, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Likiang, Yunnan 1 ; Nui Kai (thirty miles north of Talifu) 
1; Shangkuan (ten miles north of Talifu) 3. 

In two of these, the gray midventral stripe is fully developed, 
in one it is slightly interrupted posteriorly, in another confined to 
the chest, and in still another it is wholly absent. There is also 
variation in the shade of ferruginous of the under parts. Other 
specimens examined from the Likiang region show similar variation 
and, although they are easily distinguishable from gordoni on the 
one hand and gloveri on the other, they seem to represent an inter- 
mediate stage between the two. 

Callosciurus erythraeus gloveri Thomas. GLOVER ALLEN'S 
SQUIRREL. 

Callosciurus erythraeus gloveri Thomas, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 27, 
p. 502, 1921 Nagchuka, western Szechwan. 

K.-R. Baurong, Szechwan 4; Muli, Szechwan 5; Yungning, 
Yunnan 2. 

This form seems nearest to michianus, with which it agrees in 
general pale color, but differs in the absence of the midventral stripe. 

1 Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition. 
1 Delacour and Lowe, 1929-30. 
'Records, 1925-29. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 275 

In the more southern specimens the ears are noticeably ochraceous 
and contrasted, but in those from Baurong, taken in May, the ears 
are gray with only faint traces of ochraceous. This may be partly 
seasonal or it may represent the extreme of a development from the 
southern forms northward. 

Callosciurus erythraeus bonhotei Robinson and Wroughton. 
BONHOTE'S SQUIRREL. 

Sciurus castaneoventris bonhotei Robinson and Wroughton, Jour. Fed. Malay 
States Mus., 4, p. 234, 1911 Chin Chien San, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Omei-Shan, Szechwan 1. 

This is a large, dark-colored squirrel quite unlike gloveri and 
michianus of western Szechwan and probably more nearly related 
to forms of southern and eastern China. Besides the type, there 
are in the British Museum two other examples from Chen Yen 
Say and Yuen Ching Hsien, both collected by M. P. Anderson. 

Callosciurus flavimanus Geoffrey. 

Sciurus flavimanus Geoffroy, Mag. Zool., Classe I, Mamm., p. 1, 1832 
Tourane, Annam. 

REC. 1925-29. Col des Nuages, A. 22; Hue, A. 1; Thua Lua, A. 2. 

Callosciurus flavimanus quantulus Thomas. 

Sciurus flavimanus quantulus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 51, 1927 
Xieng Kuang, Laos. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 7. 

REC. 1925-29. Ceia Tung, Quangtri, A. 3; Xieng Kuang, L. 7. 

These agree closely with specimens from Col des Nuages regarded 
as typical flavimanus by Thomas (1927, p. 51). In most of them, 
however, the terminal inch of the tail is either wholly black or black 
with a few light-tipped hairs, although one has scarcely more black 
at the tip of the tail than laterally. In three there is evidence of a 
light hip-patch, in the others none. Two have the tails annulated 
with black and dull whitish, while the others are much more ochra- 
ceous. In some the "maroon" of the under parts extends to the chin 
and in others it does not. These are among the characters used by 
Thomas to distinguish no less than five races of this squirrel within 
a district scarcely more than three hundred miles in linear extent. 
It is, nevertheless, entirely possible that these all may be locally 
distinct, since notable cases of such differentiation among squirrels 



276 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

are known elsewhere. On the other hand, seasonal variation in 
squirrels is considerable and dimorphism frequent. The supposed 
races are quantulus (Xieng Kuang, Laos), pirata (Nape", Laos), 
dactylinus (Dakto, Annam), and contumax (Kontoum, Annam). 
Typical flavimanus is represented by a large series from Col des 
Nuages, the others by a half dozen specimens, each series from a 
single locality. Our specimens apparently stand somewhat between 
quantulus and pirata and similar ones have been referred by Thomas 
to quantulus. 

Callosciurus flavimanus bolovensis subsp. nov. 

Type from Paksong, Boloven Plateau, Laos. No. 37,874 Field 
Museum of Natural History. Adult female. Collected January 24, 
1932, by J. Delacour. Orig. No. 211. 

Diagnosis. Similar to C. flavimanus, but distal part (one-fourth 
to three-fourths) of tail self-colored ferruginous or cinnamon rufous 
without annulations; base of tail with hairs light at base and with 
only two or, at most, three, dark annulations; sides of face and top 
of head largely ochraceous tawny and entire pelage more extensively 
rufescent than in flavimanus and related subspecies; hands and feet 
nearly as richly colored as the under parts and in some contrast to 
the front sides of the arms which are paler; lower legs in some cases 
suffused with tawny on outer sides; under parts practically as in 
flavimanus; a slight hip-patch in some specimens. 

Measurements. Type: total length 452; tail 208; hind foot 55. 

Remarks. This form is represented by twenty-four specimens in 
which there is some variation but in which the important characters 
are well maintained. Although it is probable that too many names 
already have been applied to the flavimanus group, there seems no 
possible disposition of these specimens except as representatives of 
an undescribed form. They differ from all the previously named 
ones more than any of them do from each other and their remarkable 
tails, largely self-colored, even suggest those of the ferrugineus group. 
The condition of the tails in most cases is slightly worn, indicating 
a pelage of long standing, and it is not unlikely that such a pelage 
might be succeeded by one in which at least a few annulations would 
be carried to the tip. Nothing closely resembling them, however, 
has been seen in the other forms. 

Specimens examined. Bantion, L. 1; Pakhout, L. 1; Paksong, 
L. 2; Thateng, L. 20. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 277 

Callosciurus flavimanus dactylinus Thomas. 

Callosciurus flavimanus dactylinus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 52, 
1927 Dakto, Annam. 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 5. 

Callosciurus flavimanus contumax Thomas. 

Callosciurus flavimanus contumax Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 52, 
1927 Kontoum, Annam. 

REC. 1925-29. Kontoum, A. 5. 

Callosciurus flavimanus pirata Thomas. 

Callosciurus flavimanus pirata Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 836, 1929 
Nape, Laos. 

REC. 1925-29. Hu, A. 1; Nape", L. 11. 

Callosciurus imitator Thomas. 

Callosciurus imitator Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 502, 1905 Thai 
Nien, Tonkin. 

K.-R. Lieng San, T. 6; Muong Bourn, T. 11; Muong Moun, 
T. 4; Muong Yo, L. 16; Nam Neu, south of Lai Chau, T. 1; Nong 
Lum, T. 1; Phong Saly, L. 3; Vientiane, L. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 17; Hoi Xuan, A. 2; Pakha, T. 3. 

WULSIN 1924. Lai Chau, T. 3; Muong Khoua, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Muong Sen, A. 2; Nape*, L. 2; Phuqui, A. 15; 
Thai Nien, T. 2; Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

This plain-colored squirrel evidently is very common throughout 
northern Laos and western Tonkin, since it was taken in much larger 
numbers than any other species. There is but little variation in 
color shown and no distinctions can be made between northern and 
southern specimens. The single example from Vientiane, taken 
July 3, indicates that the color of the under parts may be considerably 
lighter at that season than in winter. 

Callosciurus griseimanus Milne-Edwards. GRAY-HANDED SQUIR- 
REL. 

Sciurus griseimanus Milne-Edwards, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 19, p. 195, June, 

1867 Saigon, Cochin China. 
Macroxus kucopus Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (3), 20, p. 282, Oct., 1867 

Cambodia. 
Sciurus leucopus fumigatus Bonhote, Abstr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 2, 

Jan. 22, 1907 Ninh Hoa, Annam. 



278 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Sciurus vassali Bonhote, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 9, 1907 substitute for 

fumigatus, preoccupied. 
Cdttoseiurus leucopus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 147, 1928. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Ninh Hoa, A. 3; Phanrang, A. 3. 
REC. 1925-29. An Binh, C.C. 4; Djiring, A. 21; Tay Ninh, 
C.C. 9. 

Although Bonhote regarded griseimanus and leucopus as distinct 
species and recognized two races of leucopus, present evidence seems 
to indicate that no more than one variable form is concerned. 
Thomas (I.e.) has noted great variability in an extensive series from 
Djiring, Annam, on the basis of which he discredits vassali, but he 
does not mention griseimanus. In the Delacour and Lowe collec- 
tion of 1930 are six specimens obtained by Jabouille, three from 
Ninh Hoa and three from Phanrang, both localities in the same 
general region as Djiring. Those from Ninh Hoa, which is the type 
locality of vassali, show all the characters of griseimanus, while those 
from Phanrang, taken at another season, represent the other extreme 
of coloration supposed to characterize leucopus. The Ninh Hoa 
specimens, taken in September, are darker and have the under parts 
rich ferruginous in great contrast to the upper parts. Those from 
Phanrang, taken in July, are generally paler and the under parts 
are merely pale buffy blending on the sides with the upper parts. 
Although these differences are very pronounced, it seems highly 
probable that they are due mainly to a seasonal change and the 
variation between the extremes which has been recorded previously 
may be accountable as stages from one to the other. 

The names griseimanus and leucopus were published in the same 
year, the former apparently having priority of a few months. 

Callosciurus ferrugineus Williamson! Robinson and Kloss. 
WILLIAMSON'S SQUIRREL. 

Callosciurus ferrugineus william&oni Robinson and Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (9), 9, p. 90, Jan., 1922 Khet Don Heing, PaklaHoop, north bank 
Mekong River, Laos. 

K.-R. Vientiane, L. 7. 
DEL. 1931-32. Pakse, L. 5. 

The small series of this handsome squirrel from Vientiane is 
quite uniform in coloration and, since the locality is not very far 
from that of the original series, is quite typical in all respects. 
Direct comparison with the type, now in the British Museum, finds 
agreement as to color, although the type was taken in January and 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 279 

the Vientiane specimens in July. The type merely has somewhat 
heavier pelage. 

This squirrel furnishes an instance of the rather unusual coloration 
(at least in certain pelages) in which the under parts are darker and 
more deeply colored than the upper parts. Its nearest ally is doubt- 
less the Siamese menamicus from which it differs in generally brighter 
color above and in the sharp demarcation of upper and lower parts. 

The specimens from Pakse in general are more deeply colored 
than those from farther north and the tails are no lighter at the 
tips than elsewhere. It is probable, however, that such differences 
are due largely or wholly to season. Apparently the form has quite 
an extensive north and south range along the east bank of the 
Mekong. The occurrence of annellatus on the west side of the river 
and wittiamsoni on the east side practically opposite indicates that 
there is no connection between them at this point. 

Callosciurus ferrugineus splendens Gray. 

Sciurus splendens Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 137, 1861 S. Cambodia 
(Thomas, 1929). 

REC. 1925-29. Bokor, C. 10; Kampot, C. 1. 

Callosciurus ferrugineus cinnamomeus Temminck. 

Sciurus cinnamomeus Temminck, Esq. Zool. Guin., p. 250, 1853 Siem Reap, 
Cambodia (Thomas, 1929). 

REC. 1925-29. Siem Reap, C. 6. 

Callosciurus ferrugineus annellatus Thomas. 

Callosciurus ferrugineus annellatus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 839, 
1929 Angkor, Cambodia. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Cambodia 2. 

DEL. 1931-32. Bassac, L. (west bank of Mekong) 2. 

Two specimens of this oddly marked squirrel are among those 
obtained by the botanist H. Poilane, for Delacour and Lowe in 
1930. Their exact locality is queried, but some evidence seems to 
indicate that they came from Kratie, Cambodia. The body color, 
which Thomas gives merely as "deep rich rufous" is very close to 
the Claret Brown of Ridgway, and the tail is Maroon, with concealed 
apical black. 

The two fine examples from Bassac have the sides of the head, 
chin, arms, and the fore and hind feet much darkened, almost 



280 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

blackish. It is possible that they should be distinguished nomencla- 
turally, but it is perhaps more probable that they are merely gradients 
between anneUatus and one of the numerous named forms of the 
variable group to which they belong. 

Callosciurus finlaysoni subsp. 

An imperfect skin without skull from Kratie, Cambodia, is in 
the Delacour and Lowe collection. Another from "Na Kai," Indo- 
China, is in the material collected by F. R. Wulsin for the United 
States National Museum. This is blackish on the back and the 
base of the tail, but in the absence of comparative material no 
attempt at exact determination has been made. 

Callosciurus sp. 

A squirrel from Luang Prabang, Laos, obtained by F. R. Wulsin, 
may represent an undescribed form allied to caniceps and pygerythrus, 
but material is insufficient to ascertain its proper position, especially 
in view of the great seasonal changes and the high variability known 
to characterize the group to which it belongs. The single specimen 
has the under parts and the tail almost the same bright shade as the 
back, the intervening sides being gray. 

Menetes berdmorei mouhoti Gray. BERDMORE'S STRIPED 
SQUIRREL. 

Sciurus mouhotii Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 137, 1867 Cambodia. 
Menetes berdmorei moerescens Thomas, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 23, p. 24, 
1914 Bali, near Nhatrang, Annam. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hon Quan, C.C. 1; Lao Bao, A. 1; Ninh Hoa, 
Nhatrang, A. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. An Binh, C.C. 1; Angkor, C. 1; Dakto, A. 3; 
Kontoum, A. 7; Tay Ninh, C.C. 2. 

The medium-sized striped squirrels represented by the generic 
name Menetes have a rather limited range from southeastern Burma 
through Tenasserim and Siam to southern Annam. Within this 
region Thomas has attempted to distinguish no less than five forms 
(berdmorei, consularis, decoratus, moerescens, and mouhoti). To these 
Gyldenstolpe has added a sixth (koratensis) and Kloss, perhaps 
more justifiably, has given names to forms from islands lying near 
the coast of Siam (umbrosus and rufescens). 

A somewhat cursory review of the types and other specimens of 
Menetes in the British Museum brings the conviction that perhaps 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 281 

no more than half the names for mainland forms will ultimately 
be recognized. Variation due to season is very great, as in Tamiops 
and various other squirrels and, many localities being represented 
only by single badly prepared specimens, conclusions in which fine 
distinctions take part seem very uncertain. 

The specimen in hand from Ninh Hoa is practically a topotype 
of moerescens, but its skull is smaller than that of the type and 
seems to indicate that moerescens at least should be a synonym of 
mouhoti whether or not this last be separated from berdmorei. 

It is probable that the last word has not yet been said as to the 
generic position of these squirrels. Their relation to East Indian 
species may need investigation and there is also interest in the possi- 
bility that they may be allied to Sciurotamias through the monotypic 
Rupestes which both externally and cranially presents a combination 
of the characters of Menetes and Sciurotamias. 

Sciurotamias davidanus Milne-Edwards. PERE DAVID'S SQUIRREL. 

Sciurus davidanus Milne-Edwards, Rev. Mag. ZooL, (2), 19, p. 196, 1867 
mountains near Peking, China. 

K.-R. Ko-chia-ho-pa, Szechwan 1; Trashi-cho-tin, Szechwan 1. 

These localities are northeast of Tatsienlu and but a short distance 
almost directly west of Mouping. The specimens seem quite typical 
of davidanus which has been found mainly farther east and northeast. 
Just how they are connected to the eastward is not clear but perhaps 
it is through the province of Hupeh since darker forms occupy the 
region immediately northward. 

Sciurotamias davidanus consobrinus Milne-Edwards. 

Sciurus consobrinus Milne-Edwards, Rech. Mamm., pp. 304-305, 1868-74 
Mouping, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Tupakeo, Szechwan 1. 

A specimen from the region immediately northwest of Mouping 
may be regarded as practically topotypical of consobrinus. It is 
considerably darker and more richly colored than any of a series 
of owstoni from Shensi. Its feet are blackish and, so far as can be 
judged by the description, it is practically identical with S. d. thayeri 
G. M. Allen from Washan, Szechwan. 

Dremomys pernyi griselda Thomas. LONG-SNOUTED SQUIRREL. 

Dremomys pernyi griselda Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, p. 392, 
1916 Nagchuka, Szechwan. 



282 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Dremomys pernyi lichiensis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 10, p. 403, 
1922 Likiang Range, Yunnan. 

K.-R Szechwan: Baurong, Tailing River, lat. 29 N. 1; Chi-il, 
about lat. 29 20' N. 1; Mi Lola, between Yungning and Muli, 
about lat. 28 10' N. 5; Tiyu (Gomba), southwest of Baurong 1; 
25 miles north of Tatsienlu 1; Wushi, northeast of Baurong 4; 
Yulongkong, near Tatsienlu 1. Yunnan: Likiang 3; Manyuh Camp, 
about 50 miles north of Likiang 1; Nguluko, about 20 miles north 
of Likiang 1; Yungning, near Szechwan boundary 4; watershed 
south of Yungning 1. 

Squirrels of the genus Dremomys collected by Herbert Stevens 
cover a range of dates from February to August, and various localities 
from Likiang in Yunnan to the region of Tatsienlu in Szechwan. 
These are supplemented in Field Museum by specimens from the 
Likiang region received from the Third Asiatic Expedition and by 
two important topotypes of lichiensis from the original series, received 
through exchange with the British Museum. 

Examination of this material finds little justification for the 
recognition of lichiensis as distinct from griselda. The variation in 
color is slight and not correlated with geography. The species lives 
at very high altitudes where conditions may be assumed to be rela- 
tively uniform and it is plain that the larger rivers have not been 
barriers to its distribution. Probably there is not an elevated area 
in all of southwestern China in which it could not be found. If 
typical pernyi be recognized from southwestern Yunnan, as defined 
by Thomas, and flavior from southeastern Yunnan, there is scarcely 
room for lichiensis. Even if the slight characters mentioned for it 
could be substantiated, they would best be explained as simple 
evidence of gradation between griselda and the more southern forms. 

Dremomys rufigenis ornatus Thomas. 

Dremomys rufigenis ornatus Thomas, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 23, p. 26, 
1914 Mongtze, Yunnan, China. 

K.-R. Lieng San, T. 1; Muong Mo, T. 3; Muong Moun, T. 1; 
Muong Yo, L. 3; Phong Saly, L. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 19; Pakha, T. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 3; Bao Ha, T. 1; Ngai Tio, T. 1; 
Tarn Dao, T. 8. 

In this series there are two types of coloration, one in which the 
under parts are mainly whitish and another in which they are wholly 
pale ochraceous, the only white being on the inside of the arms. Both 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 283 

types may occur at one locality. Although ochraceous under parts 
have not been noticed heretofore in the rufigenis series, there is 
little doubt that these specimens should be referred to ornatus. In 
fact, the distinction of ornatus from typical rufigenis may be 
strengthened by this tendency to ochraceous under parts which is 
more than likely to be found in southern Yunnan as well as in Tonkin 
and Laos. The type of ornatus can be matched easily among Tonkin 
specimens so far as color is concerned. It has the chin, throat, and 
even the breast pale ochraceous, the belly and the inside of the legs 
whitish. The upper parts are uniformly colored without any obvious 
increase in rufescent about the rump and thighs. The usual light 
hip-patch is present. The ear-patches are whitish at the base with 
ochraceous tips to the hairs. This is the general style which prevails 
throughout northern Laos and Tonkin, whereas from more southern 
localities there is more contrast between the color of the body and 
that of the hind legs. Some of this is doubtless due to season, but 
it is probable that a southern race (fuscus} can be recognized. Speci- 
mens taken in November are more olivaceous and uniform in color 
than those taken in March and what they might be in July and 
August is not known. 

The skulls of the Tonkin specimens are in general smaller than 
the skull of the type of ornatus, but a competent study of skulls 
is not possible with present material. 

Dremomys rufigenis f uscus Bonhote. 

Funambulus rufigenis fuscus Bonhote, Abstr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 2, 
Jan., 1907 Bali, Annam. 

REC. 1925-29. Col des Nuages, A. 11; Dakto, A. 1; Dalat, 
A. 1; Djiring, A. 1; Kontoum, A. 1; Nape", L. 3; Thua Lua, A. 1; 
Xieng Kuang, L. 13. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng (1,000 feet above), L. 1. 

In his several papers on Indo-Chinese mammals, Thomas has 
been chary about the reference of individual specimens of Dremomys 
to definite subspecies. It is clearly a difficult group and it is probable 
that the number of names now extant is more than sufficient. Al- 
though Thomas has continued to do so, there seems little reason 
for withholding the name fuscus from the form of southern and 
central Annam. Specimens from Col des Nuages are, for the most 
part, essentially the same as the type series of fuscus. At best these 
could be no more than intermediates between fuscus and the supposed 
form called laomache (Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 182, 



284 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

1921) from the vicinity of Pak Hin Bun, Laos. That laomache is 
itself only a slight gradient between fuscus and ornatus also is 
extremely probable. Specimens from Kontoum, Annam, are closely 
similar to the type of laomache and others from Xieng Kuang are 
but slightly different, while from Nape", Laos, but a short distance 
away, are specimens agreeing with fuscus from southern Annam. 
The single specimen from the Boloven Plateau perhaps should 
represent laomache on geographic grounds, but it shows no distin- 
guishing characters. 

Dremomys pyrrhomerus gularis sp. nov. 

Type from Mount Fan Si Pan, near Chapa, Tonkin. Altitude 
8,000-10,000 feet. No. 32.4.19.5. British Museum. Adult male. 
Collected Dec. 3, 1929, by J. Delacour and W. Lowe. Orig. No. 1,551. 

Diagnosis. Similar to D. pyrrhomerus and D. rufigenis but chin 
and throat and inner sides of hind legs rich Ochraceous Tawny in 
abrupt contrast to other under parts; flank patch obsolescent and 
reduced to a narrow line scarcely more evident than in rufigenis; 
cheeks, nose and forehead less tawny than in rufigenis, nearly or 
quite as in pyrrhomerus. 

Color. Upper parts (November and December specimens) 
grizzled brownish to olivaceous (Prouts Brown to Olive Brown), 
about as in rufigenis, more saturate than in pyrrhomerus; a short 
blackish line usually evident on middle of back; top of head, nose 
and sides of face from slightly below eyes like back; lower cheeks 
and base of whiskers ochraceous tawny continuous with chin and 
throat; light patches behind ears whitish basally, Ochraceous Buff 
to Cinnamon apically; flank-patch scarcely evident except as a 
slight extension of the color of the inner sides of the hind legs; 
hands and feet grizzled blackish usually with a tinge of ochraceous; 
tail slightly paler or practically as in rufigenis and pyrrhomerus, the 
under side mainly bright Ochraceous Tawny narrowly bordered by 
gray-tipped black; upper side of tail coarsely grizzled, the hairs with 
five annulations including a whitish tip; under parts divided into 
three sharply contrasted color areas; chin, throat, fore-breast, and 
a narrow line on inner sides of arms Ochraceous Tawny, the hairs 
with narrow dark bases; base of tail, anal region, and entire inner 
sides of thighs also Ochraceous Tawny; midventral region and a 
short extension on hind side of arms whitish gray, the hairs broadly 
dark basally and narrowly tipped with creamy white. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 285 

Skull. Size rather large with a broad full braincase; rostrum 
averaging shorter and heavier than in pyrrhomerus; supraorbital 
border with a well-marked notch. 

Measurements. Average of ten adults measured by the collector: 
head and body 216; tail 168; hind foot (s.u.) 45. Skull of type: 
greatest length 57.6; condylo-basal length 50.2; zygomatic width 31; 
interorbital width 16.7; median length of nasals 17.9; least width 
of nasals 4; diastema 12.8; upper toothrow 10.1. 

Remarks. This is a very distinct form, perhaps a separate 
species, but various general resemblances to pyrrhomerus and the 
fact that it occurs at high elevations within the area occupied by 
rufigenis lead to the inference that it is most probably a southern 
representative of pyrrhomerus. To some extent it combines certain 
of the characters of rufigenis and pyrrhomerus since it resembles 
rufigenis in lacking the prominent flank-patch but is more like 
pyrrhomerus in the color of the head. It differs strikingly from both 
in its brightly colored throat and hind legs. The slight tendency to 
a dark dorsal line shown in some specimens of pyrrhomerus is repeated 
in gularis. In cranial characters, also, the resemblance between the 
two is obviously close. When more material is obtained from the 
southern provinces of China, therefore, it is not unlikely that grada- 
tions will be found. 

A large series of thirty-eight specimens of this handsome new 
squirrel was obtained by Delacour and Lowe during their long stay 
at Chapa, Tonkin. Some of them were labeled as coming from 
elevations no higher than 5,000 feet but since they were derived 
from native hunters there may be doubt as to the exact height at 
which individual specimens were taken. A considerable number 
are known definitely to come from Mount Fan Si Pan and at the 
highest altitudes, from 8,000 feet upward, this was the only species 
of Dremomys obtained. Here it was found in company with Tamiops 
olivaceus, microtines, and other species having affinities with northern 
forms. Most of the specimens are in slightly worn but rather thick 
pelage in which the median under parts have the basal color of the 
hairs somewhat exposed. For this reason the collectors, in their 
field catalogues, distinguished the species as the "blue-bellied 
squirrel." 

Tamiops swinhoei Milne-Edwards. SWINHOE'S STRIPED SQUIRREL. 

Sciurus macdellandii var. swinhoei Milne-Edwards, Rech. Mamm., p. 308, 
1868-74 Mouping, Szechwan. 



286 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

K.-R. Lian-feng-kang, near Omei-Shan, Szechwan 1. 

This is fully typical and has been compared with a specimen 
from Mouping formerly in the Paris Museum but now in the British. 
Other Szechwan examples seen are from Yeng-ling-pa and Hea-kea- 
tun, as well as a further fine specimen from Omei-Shan collected 
by M. P. Anderson during the Duke of Bedford's exploration of 
eastern Asia. 

The specimen in hand was taken Oct. 8, 1929, by Herbert Stevens 
and is in very handsome pelage, with five black stripes, two outer 
light stripes of dark cinnamon-buff, measuring about 10 mm. in 
width, and two inner light stripes of cinnamon-brown. 

There seems no doubt that swinhoei should stand as a species 
distinct from the "macclellandi" and probably also from the "mariti- 
mus" series. Its large size sets it off from most of these, but, as 
elsewhere noted, it probably intergrades with clarkei and through 
this possibly also with monticola and olivaceus. Its skull is charac- 
terized by unusually large audital bullae which are only equaled by 
those of T. vestitus of the Peking region. Therefore a gradation 
between vestitus and swinhoei may be looked for in future collections. 

Tamiops swinhoei clarkei Thomas. 

Tamiops clarkei Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 5, p. 304, March, 1920 
Yangtze Valley, northern Yunnan (lat. 27 20' N.; long. 101 E.). 

K.-R. Kulu, upper Yalung River, western Szechwan 1; Wushi, 
southwest of Tatsienlu, Szechwan 1. 

These specimens have considerable interest as probably illus- 
trating the "left-over" winter pelage of T. s. clarkei and indicating 
its subspecific relationship to swinhoei. They were taken in April 
and May and are in long, shaggy, partly worn pelage, quite different 
from the smooth, short coats of the type and other available speci- 
mens of clarkei. On the top and sides of the head, however, they 
are much paler than in swinhoei and closely similar to clarkei. The 
outer light stripes are fairly marked but suffused with fulvous and 
they are shorter and broader than might be expected in clarkei. The 
tails are broader and more ochraceous than in clarkei. On the whole 
they seem to combine characters of swinhoei and clarkei, but probably 
are much nearer the latter. Their skulls are slightly smaller and the 
audital bullae are quite markedly smaller than in swinhoei. This 
difference in the bullae seems almost sufficient to be of specific 
importance, but available skulls of typical swinhoei are few in number 
and the probability of complete intergradation is very strong. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 287 

Tamiops macclellandi rodolphei Milne-Edwards. 

Sciunts (Tamias) Rodolphii Milne-Edwards, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 19, p. 
227, 1867 Cochin China near Saigon. 

A single specimen of this squirrel is among the collections obtained 
by Delacour and Lowe from the botanist Poilane. Its exact locality 
is not stated. The type, collected by Rodolphe Germain, was said 
to be from "Cochinchine" and doubtless came from the region of 
Saigon. The original description mentions the color of the under 
parts "un beau jaune orange" which characterizes the form. It is 
well represented in the British Museum by specimens from several 
localities in Cochin China, including An Binh, Tay Ninh, Trang 
Bom (twenty-five miles east of Saigon), and Saigon. There are 
also five specimens from Djiring, Annam, and one from Bali, near 
Nhatrang. 

Specimens from Angkor and Sambor, Cambodia, referred by 
Thomas (1929, p. 840) to rodolphei seem to agree more nearly with 
subspecies liantis (syn. lylei) which is very close to rodolphei on the 
one hand and to kongensis on the other. The type of T. m. dolphoides 
Kloss (Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 4, p. 101, 1921) has not been 
examined, but its locality, in western Cambodia, indicates its close 
affinity. Assuming continuous distribution, the transition from 
rodolphei to barbei evidently takes place via dolphoides, liantis, and 
kongensis. Whether or not so many names are justified in such a 
limited area may not be demonstrable at present, but, as further 
material accumulates, consideration will be needed as to the possi- 
bility that one or more of them should be regarded merely as 
"intermediate." 

Tamiops macclellandi inconstans Thomas. 

Tamiops inconstans Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 5, p. 306, March, 
1920 Mongtze?, Yunnan. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Pakha, T. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Ba Be, T. 3; Bao Ha, T. 9; Thai Nien, T. 4. 

All the specimens thus far obtained of this rare form are from the 
valley of the "Fleuve Rouge" in a very limited area in southern 
Yunnan and northwestern Tonkin. Only the dull, winter pelage is 
represented, but the presence of four light stripes as well as the 
size and cranial characters leaves no doubt of the close relationship 
to macclellandi. All the stripes are less contrasted with each other 
than in other forms and the inner pair of light stripes is decidedly 



288 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

less distinct than the outer. Interruption of the subocular stripe 
at the shoulders is less than in dolphoides and in many specimens 
there is practical continuity. In the summer pelage it would not 
be surprising to find it as unbroken and well marked as in barbei. 
The under parts are deeper-colored than in Annamese dolphoides 
and practically the same as in barbei. 

The connection of this form with other members of the macclel- 
landi series is possible either through barbei or dolphoides or perhaps 
through both. In the stretch of coast between Hanoi and Hu 
there is room for gradation into dolphoides, but, although some col- 
lecting has been done in this region, nothing of the kind has yet 
been found. Intergradation with barbei also is to be looked for in 
the region between Tonkin and Upper Burma, for specimens 
apparently indistinguishable from barbei have been recorded from 
Mengting, Yunnan, in this latitude by G. M. Allen (Am. Mus. 
Novit., No. 163, p. 7, 1925). 

The occurrence of inconstans and hainanus at the same localities 
in Tonkin furnishes further evidence of the specific distinctness of 
the macclellandi and maritimus series. 

Tamiops macclellandi dolphoides Kloss. 

Tamiops macclellandi dolphoides Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 4, No. 2, 
p. 101, March, 1921 Kompong Som Bon, near Sre Umbel, Cambodia. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 3. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Ninh Hoa, north of Nhatrang, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Pakse, L. 2; Paksong, L. 2; Paleng, L. 2; Phukong 
Ntoul, L. 3; Thateng, L. 24 (12 ale.). 

REC. 1925-29. 1 Col des Nuages, A. 7; Dakto, A. 10; Kontoum, 
A. 7; Nape", L. 1. 

The small striped squirrels of east-central Annam differ from 
rodolphei in having the upper parts darker, more olivaceous, and the 
under parts Ochraceous Buff with a yellowish tinge instead of 
Orange Rufous. Possibly they should be segregated under a new 
name, but since dolphoides is described as having yellowish rather 
than orange rufous under parts, it seems best for the present to treat 
them under that name. Probably they will prove to be more 
differentiated from rodolphei than is dolphoides from its type locality, 
and it may be that we have here one of those unfortunate but 
unavoidable cases in which the type locality is near the periphery 

1 Recorded under the name rodolphei. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 289 

of the range of a definable form and the type is in a certain sense 
"not typical." 

There is some indication, also, of tendency toward T. m. inconstans 
and, although Tamiops of the macclellandi series have not been taken 
in northern Annam and southern Tonkin in the area intervening 
between the ranges of dolphoides and inconstans, the possibility that 
they may occur there cannot as yet be excluded. 

Tamiops macclellandi kongensis Bonhote. 

Sciurus macclellandi kongensis Bonhote, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 55, 1901 
Raheng, Siam. 

WULSIN 1924. Vientiane, L. 5. 

Five specimens taken in July at Vientiane are more grayish than 
barbei and may be referred provisionally to kongensis. A form 
(laotum) allied to maritimus also occurs at this locality which is 
thus shown to be in the area in which there is overlapping of the 
macclellandi and maritimus series. 

Tamiops maritimus hainanus Allen. 

Tamiops macclellandi hainanus J. A. Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 22, 
p. 476, Dec., 1906 Lei-Mui-Mon, island of Hainan, China. 

Tamiops macclellandi riudoni J. A. Allen, I.e., p. 477 Riudon, island of 
Hainan, China. 

K.-R. Ba Nam Cai, T. 1; Boun Tai, L. 1; Chapa, T. 5; Lai 
Chau, T. 2; Lao Fou Chai, L. 1; Lieng San, T. 5; Muong Bourn, T. 6; 
Muong Mo, T. 7; Muong Moun, T. 5; Muong Yo, L. 5; Nong Lum, 
T. 3; Pa Ham, T. 2; Phong Saly, L. 6; Phong Tho, T. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 10; Hoi Xuan, A. 8; Lung Lunh, 
A. 1; Pakha, T. 2. 

A study of this material, all from one general region and repre- 
senting numerous localities and dates, leads to much uncertainty 
as to the validity of various color-characters supposed to differentiate 
closely allied forms within the group. A selected number of speci- 
mens was taken to London and there compared with the series in 
the British Museum, including the types of maritimus, monticola, 
laotum, and moi. This series includes specimens from Xieng Kuang 
and Nape", Laos, which Thomas has referred to laotum, as well as 
others from Backan and Chora, Tonkin, which the same author 
regarded as inseparable from maritimus. In London the conclusion 
was formed that all the specimens from Tonkin and Laos should 



290 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

be referred to one form with the qualification that those from more 
southern and western localities averaged paler than those from 
farther north and east. Subsequent study in Field Museum, which 
has some twenty specimens from the island of Hainan, brought up 
the question of the supposed distinction of an insular form. This 
has forced the opinion that present material does not justify any 
separation in this case. If there be any distinction it must be one 
of very slight average characters which cannot as yet be demon- 
strated. Excluding specimens from Nape", Laos, and others from 
the same region, which are grading toward laotum, makes this con- 
clusion the more evident. If it be assumed that the same variations 
and seasonal changes are found on the island as on the mainland, 
there is no basis for separation. That two distinct species occur on 
the island is highly improbable without some differences in size and 
cranial characters. Such differences do not appear in two topotypes 
of "riudoni," kindly loaned by the American Museum of Natural 
History, and although these differ in color from most other Hainan 
specimens, they can be matched easily by mainland specimens among 
which a greater range of seasonal variation is shown than in collec- 
tions from Hainan thus far made. The specimens representing 
riudoni were taken by a Chinese collector and are discolored on the 
throat and chest, evidently by some preservative or other extraneous 
means. The remaining under parts are rather dark but not more 
so than in many specimens from various localities in Tonkin. There- 
fore, it must be concluded that evidence is as yet insufficient to 
demonstrate the distinction of riudoni from hainanus. 

As noted by G. M. Allen (Am. Mus. Novit., No. 163, p. 7, 1925), 
hainanus is distinguished from maritimus by having a smaller, more 
slender foot. Measurements taken from dried skins of maritimus 
show a foot-length of 32-34, whereas those taken in the same way 
from hainanus are only 28-30. This difference in the size of the 
feet is borne out by the skulls, those of maritimus being decidedly 
larger than in hainanus. Therefore, although color characters are 
baffling and uncertain, the separation of maritimus and hainanus 
on the basis of size is quite simple. 

Practically all the specimens now in museums were taken in 
what may be called the winter season. The dates range only from 
November to May, leaving the long period of not less than five 
months from June to October unrepresented. It is evident also 
that dates alone are not wholly reliable guides as to comparability 
of pelages. Thus Hainan specimens taken in December and January 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 291 

are not in the same stage as those taken on the mainland at the 
same dates but correspond more closely to stages which are not 
reached on the mainland until a month or two later. In general, 
the winter pelage (December to March) in its extreme form is very 
dull, the outer light stripes are narrow and clouded, and the median 
dark line is not sharply contrasted; the entire under parts are usually 
washed heavily with fulvous. As this pelage wears, the stripes 
become more defined and contrasted and the median dark stripe, 
especially, may become quite black and conspicuous before the 
general pelage shows any obvious signs of wear. In Tonkin and 
Laos this relatively dull winter pelage becomes frayed and rough 
in April and May and is then succeeded by a complete new coat 
in which the under parts are much paler and the stripes are very 
distinct. A median and one pair of lateral black or blackish stripes 
are well defined and the lateral light stripes are broad and relatively 
clear. How long this pelage may be worn is unknown, but late fall 
specimens (November) often show a coat not greatly worn which 
is quite similar to it, and it is possible there may be an intervening 
pelage. At least these changes of pelage provide room for very wide 
differences in the color and markings of individual specimens and, 
without series that are strictly comparable, fine subspecific distinc- 
tions cannot be drawn. Under these conditions, multiplication of 
names only produces confusion. 

Tamiops maritimus laotum Robinson and Kloss. 

Tamiops macclellandi laotum Robinson and Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 
9, p. 92, 1922 Pak Hin Bun, east bank Mekong River, Laos. 

K.-R. Vientiane, L. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Locality unknown 2. 

DEL. 1931-32. Saravane, L. 1. 

This form is well characterized by very pale color which reaches 
its extreme development in southern Laos. Specimens from central 
and northern Laos (Nape" and Xieng Kuang), which were heretofore 
regarded as laotum, are approaching hainanus. Even the type of 
laotum is somewhat darker than more southern specimens, but its 
departure from hainanus in the direction of general paleness is 
sufficiently marked. 

The specimen from Vientiane, taken July 2, is in full "summer" 
pelage in which three broad black dorsal stripes are sharply marked. 
The outer light stripes are very broad and distinct. 



292 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 
Tamiops maritimus moi Robinson and Kloss. 

Tamiops macckllandi moi Robinson and Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, 
p. 92, Jan., 1922 Langbian Plateau, southern Annam. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Dalat, Langbian Plateau, A. 1. 

A single specimen taken by Jabouille is in the collection. It is 
in excellent condition and, although dated September 12, it seems 
to resemble most closely specimens of hainanus from Tonkin and 
Laos taken in March, April and May. It appears to be in the last 
stages of a renewed pelage in which traces of a previous, worn 
coat remain only on the sides. The stripes are well marked and the 
outer light ones are suffused with fulvous, especially in their posterior 
half, but this is not distinctive since the same character is found 
in many specimens of hainanus. The under parts are uniformly 
pale creamy, much paler than in the type of laotum but quite like 
other specimens taken at a different season. 

On the basis of this specimen alone, it would be difficult to find 
any character by which to separate moi from northern specimens, 
especially those which stand in a position intermediate between 
laotum and hainanus. Until series in comparable pelages can be 
examined, the status of the form may remain in doubt. In the 
British Museum are six specimens from Djiring, Annam, representing 
moi, but they are in such condition that their color seems untrust- 
worthy. All have deep, ruddy tones suspiciously like those so often 
acquired when fresh specimens are temporarily immersed in liquid 
preservative before skinning. The type of moi and one apparently 
normal specimen from Djiring have a certain suggestion of this 
ruddiness, but altogether the material is much too scanty for reliable 
conclusions. 

Tamiops monticolus olivaceus subsp. nov. 

Type from Lo Qui Ho, Mount Fan Si Pan, near Chapa, Tonkin. 
Altitude 8,000-10,000 feet. No. 32.4.19.6. British Museum. Adult 
male. Collected Nov. 20, 1929, by J. Delacour and W. Lowe. Orig. 
No. 1,248. 

Diagnosis. Similar in size and general characters to T. monticola 
and T. m. forresti, but general color dark olivaceous rather than 
brownish, grayish or buffy; under parts Olive Ocher instead of 
Cinnamon-Buff; stripes varying according to pelage from a condition 
showing only one unclouded median stripe to that in which there is 
a median and four lateral black stripes. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 293 

Color. General color dark but strongly olivaceous; markings as 
usual, with the subocular stripe discontinued at the shoulder; in 
dull (winter) pelage there is a short and narrow median black stripe 
bordered on either side by broader light stripes concolor with the 
general body color which is nearly Buffy Olive or Light Brownish 
Olive finely stippled with blackish; following these is the pair of 
principal dark stripes which are mainly brownish (Dresden Brown) 
with faint indications of underlying black; the principal lateral 
stripes are well-defined buffy slightly clouded and varying from 
Cream Buff to Olive Ocher; under parts Deep Colonial Buff to 
Olive Ocher. In a later pelage, probably produced by simple wearing 
away of the tips of the hairs, the entire coat is darker throughout 
and all the dark stripes have become pure black, including short 
ones below the outer lateral light stripes and making five black 
stripes in all; the submedian light stripes are clearer and more 
whitish than in the other pelage; the tail is mixed Tawny Olive 
and black, much darker than in forresti and slightly darker than 
in monticolus. 

Skull. General shape elongate with the rostrum produced and 
the anterior zygoma root sloping rather than "squared"; slightly 
smaller than in monticolus, about as in forresti; audital bullae rather 
small. 

Measurements. Type, measured by collector: head and body 119; 
tail 105; hind foot (s.u.) 27. Skull of type: greatest length 37.1; 
condylo-basal length 31.9; zygomatic width 20.7; least interorbital 
width 12.2; width of braincase 17.8; length of nasals 10.5; palate 
from henselion 14.9; greatest diameter of audital bulla 6.7; upper 
toothrow 6.5. 

Remarks. Seventeen specimens of this well-marked form were 
obtained by Delacour and Lowe in the Fan Si Pan highlands near 
Chapa. Here it was associated with Dremomys p. gularis, Eothenomys, 
and other mammals of wholly northern affinities. Its distinction 
from T. hainanus, which occurs on the same mountains at lower 
levels, is obvious. A third species (inconstans) is found also in the 
same region, apparently on still lower ground or perhaps merely 
in a different ecological niche. 

Although all the specimens were taken within a very brief period 
(Nov. 19-Dec. 7), they present two phases of pelage, one in which 
the lateral dark stripes are clear and contrasting, and another in 
which they are heavily overcast with brownish or olivaceous. Which 



294 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

of these conditions precedes the other is difficult to determine, but 
examination of other material seems to indicate that the dull pelage 
is that of full midwinter and is not only followed but also preceded 
by a condition in which the stripes are more clearly defined. The 
possession of both these phases in the present series makes comparison 
with monticolus and forresti simple and certain. 

The discovery of this form in the highlands of Tonkin in close 
proximity to two others (hainanus and inconstans) very distinct 
from it and from each other furnishes clear evidence that at least 
in this region the genus Tamiops includes three distinct species. 
That these might be local representatives of three widespread species, 
each with various geographic races, was a natural assumption and, 
in attempting to test it, all the described forms of the genus have 
been examined. A thorough revision of the group was not possible 
and it is plain that material is not yet sufficient for wholly satisfactory 
conclusions, but all specimens have been reviewed in the British 
Museum and Field Museum, together with certain others from the 
United States National Museum and the American Museum of 
Natural History. 

Since various names are yet represented only by single specimens 
and since even others of which specimens are fairly numerous do 
not present more than one phase of pelage, it is too early for a clean- 
cut and positive analysis of the group. It is evident, however, that 
previous ideas of relationships need considerable revision and a 
general discussion of both certainties and probabilities can do no 
harm. Apparently cranial characters have had little attention in 
this group and careful consideration of them is often of much assist- 
ance in cases where the baffling pelages do not furnish satisfactory 
clues to affinities or distinctions. The state of knowledge of Tamiops 
is somewhat comparable to that of the American genus Eutamias 
some thirty years ago before pelage changes had been completely 
worked out. In not a single case, among all the numerous described 
forms, does material exist showing the progress of the pelages 
throughout the year. 

For purposes of discussion the genus may be divided into two 
principal groups as follows: 

Tamiops swinhoei group. This group is northern in distribution 
and is characterized mainly by large size and, with few exceptions, 
by the interruption of the subocular stripe at the shoulders. Present 
indications are that it includes at least two and perhaps three distinct 
species (swinhoei, monticolus and maritimus), but the possibility of 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 295 

the inosculation of all three cannot positively be eliminated. Names 
in this group which seem entitled to some sort of recognition are: 

Tamiops swinhoei Milne-Edwards, Mouping, Szechwan. 
clarkei Thomas, upper Yangtze, Yunnan. 
vestitus Miller, Chihli Province, China. 
monticolus Bonhote, Chin Feng Ling, Fukien. 
olivaceus Osgood, mountains near Chapa, Tonkin. 
spencei Thomas, Kachin Province, Burma. 
forresti Thomas, Likiang Mountains, Yunnan. 
ritsseolus Jacobi, Atentze, Thibet. 
maritimus Bonhote, Foochow, Fukien. 
formosanus Bonhote, Formosa. 
hainanus J. A. Allen, Hainan, China. 
laotum Robinson and Kloss, Pak Hin Bun, Laos. 
moi Robinson and Kloss, Langbian, Annam. 

Beginning with typical swinhoei, it is found that color gradations 
exist connecting it with clarkei and that cranial characters (large 
audital bullae) show it to be very closely allied to vestitus. These 
three then offer strong probability that they are geographic races 
of one species. Next is a series including monticolus, olivaceus, 
spencei, forresti, and russeolus which are approximately the same in 
size and cranial characters and differ from each other mainly in 
shades of color. There can be little doubt, therefore, that they 
are intergrading subspecies. Adequate material representing spencei 
and russeolus has not been seen, but their inclusion in the series 
seems well justified. Three specimens from Mucheng, Yunnan, 
referred by G. M. Allen (Am. Mus. Novit., No. 163, p. 5, 1925) 
to swinhoei seem like spencei as described and, although differing 
slightly from monticolus, they are more like that form than forresti 
and olivaceus which are geographically nearer. The relationship of 
the members of this series to clarkei is uncertain. None of them quite 
equals it in size, but some are closely similar in color, and all have 
skulls much as in clarkei except that they are smaller. The types 
of clarkei and forresti come from localities in Yunnan not widely 
separated and it has been assumed that they are wholly distinct 
species. Actual differences between them, however, are not too 
great to be bridged and, until clear proof to the contrary is produced, 
the suspicion may be entertained that not orily clarkei but forresti, 
monticolus and others of the same series all may be subspecies of 
swinhoei. 

The remaining members of the swinhoei group, maritimus and 
hainanus, offer further uncertainties. It was Bonhote's belief that 
maritimus and monticolus occupied different adjoining areas in 
Fukien, one on the coast and the other in the interior mountains, 



296 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

but he treated both as subspecies of maccleUandi and recorded speci- 
mens of both from one inland locality, Kuatun. The color characters 
by which he distinguished them, however, are largely or wholly 
accountable as phases of pelage. Those in the dull phase with 
indistinct stripes he called maritimus and those with bright distinct 
stripes monticolus. Specimens so far examined from the coast of 
Fukien are all in the dull pelage and, while other pelages are not 
represented from that region, there is no convincing evidence of 
color distinctions between maritimus and monticolus. Likewise there 
appears to be no difference in size, both being relatively large as 
compared to hainanus and quite equal to any of the larger forms 
of the genus except swinhoei and clarkei. The skulls, however, do 
offer a slight basis for separation. Only a few comparable skulls 
are at hand, but, so far as they go, those of monticolus have the 
anterior zygoma root somewhat compressed and sloping whereas 
those of maritimus have it abruptly bowed out or "squared." The 
sloping type is found also in olivaceus, forresti, and others of that 
series and the squared type is most pronounced in vestitus of the 
Peking region. As a working hypothesis, therefore, it is possible 
to entertain the idea that monticolus and maritimus are distinct 
and that one has its connections to the westward and the other in 
the north. This is strengthened by the occurrence of olivaceus and 
hainanus in Tonkin side by side and obviously distinct. That 
olivaceus in this region represents monticolus and hainanus represents 
maritimus may not be wholly certain but the inference is very strong. 
If there are two distinct species in Tonkin doubtless there are two 
in Fukien, although on account of imperfect material characterization 
of the latter is difficult. Complete gradation between maritimus 
and hainanus awaits proof with further specimens, but the difference 
between them is mainly one of size so no great assumption is required. 
Connection between maritimus and vestitus is suggested by resem- 
blance in the shape of the skulls, but the differences in color and in 
the size of the audital bullae are pronounced and assumption of 
intergradation is probably not warranted at this time. Material 
representing formosanus is scanty but its close relationship to 
maritimus is scarcely to be questioned. T. sauteri, also from Formosa, 
is of doubtful status, its description indicating mainly characters 
which are likely to be seasonal. 

It is plain that knowledge of this group is as yet quite imperfect. 
There is much need for competent field studies and for series from 
single localities taken at different seasons. The relationships of 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 297 

maritimus and monticolus should be carefully worked out in Fukien 
and much new material should be obtained from the provinces of 
central and southern China. There could be no better indication 
that these provinces hold the solution of much that is puzzling in 
the distribution and relationships of Asiatic mammals. Tamiops is 
doubtless common over much of China, yet we have specimens only 
from the four corners of the country with little or nothing along 
connecting lines or from the great central area. 

At present there is perhaps no better course than to consider 
the swinhoei group as consisting of three species, swinhoei, monticolus, 
and maritimus. In doing so, some reservations may be made, but 
at least the treatment will be consistent with what knowledge we 
now have. 

Tamiops macclellandi group. This group is mainly southern and 
lowland in distribution, ranging from northeastern India through 
Assam and northern Burma, southward into Tenasserim and the 
Malay Peninsula, and thence across Siam and Cochin China to 
Annam and Tonkin. In the western part of its range it represents 
the genus Tamiops alone, but in the east in Annam and Tonkin it 
is found in juxtaposition with members of the swinhoei group. It 
does not enter China and apparently does not ascend to great heights 
elsewhere. It is characterized by relatively small size (toothrow 
5.5-6 mm.) and, with one exception (dolphoides~), by continuity of 
the subocular stripe and the outer light dorsal stripe. Complete 
gradation between all the named forms is scarcely to be doubted 
and in most cases is quite demonstrable. The names in this group 
most likely to have permanent recognition are the following: 

Tamiops macclellandi Horsfield, Assam. 
m. pembertoni Blyth, Bhutan. 
m. barbei Blyth, Tenasserim. 
m. novemlineatus Miller, lower Siam. 
m. liantis Kloss, Cape Liant, Siam. 
m. kongensis Bonhote, Raheng, Siam. 
m. rodolphei Milne-Edwards, Cochin China. 
m. dolphoides Kloss, Cambodia. 
m. inconstans Thomas, Bao Ha, Tonkin. 

Two rather well-known names, manipurensis and lylei, are not 
included in this list. In the case of lylei, the omission is obviously 
necessary, since its type locality is but a few miles from that of 
liantis which antedates it. As for manipurensis, it may be granted 
that further material could conceivably substantiate it as a valid 
race, but it stands directly between macclellandi and barbei and 
seasonal variations in both seem sufficient to cover its supposed 



298 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

characters. As stated elsewhere, the inclusion of inconstans as a 
subspecies in this series may need confirmation since complete 
intergradation is not yet fully demonstrated. 

Typhlomys cinereus chapensis subsp. nov. BLIND TREE MOUSE. 

Type from Chapa, Tonkin. No. 32.4.19.7. British Museum. 
Adult female. Collected Nov. 24, 1929, by J. Delacour and W. 
Lowe. Orig. No. 1,321. 

Diagnosis. Similar in color and general characters to T. cinereus 
of Fukien, but decidedly larger. 

Color. Upper parts Deep Mouse Gray to Blackish Mouse Gray; 
under parts dull buffy, the hairs with dark bases; hands whitish; 
feet mainly dusky, the sides and the toes whitish; tail dusky, with 
or without a white pencil. 

Skidl. Generally similar to that of cinereus, but nearly 20 per 
cent larger. 

Measurements. Average of ten adults measured by the collector: 
head and body 88.5 (80-98); tail 125 (117-135); hind foot without 
claws 22. Skull of type and an adult of cinereus (in parentheses): 
greatest length 25.6 (22.7) ; zygomatic breadth 14.2 (11.8) ; interorbital 
constriction 5.5 (4.8); nasals 7.6 (6.4) ; interparietal 10 x 4 (7.8 x 3.1); 
palate from gnathion 12.8 (10.8); postpalatilar length 9.3 (7.9); 
diastema 7.2 (5.8); upper toothrow 4 (3.6). 

Remarks. Practically all hitherto known specimens of Typhlomys 
have proceeded from Fukien, China, the type region of cinereus. Its 
occurrence in Tonkin is therefore an important extension of range 
and its high degree of specialization marks it as one of the outstanding 
examples of mammals which are peculiar to Tonkin and southern 
China. The specimens from Tonkin show an abrupt and marked 
difference in size from those of Fukien although general characters 
are the same. 

Apparently the habits of this animal, which should be exceedingly 
interesting, are still quite unknown. Fourteen specimens were 
obtained by Delacour and Lowe at Chapa, all received from native 
collectors. 

Rattus norvegicus socer Miller. NORWAY RAT. 

Epimys norvegicus socer Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 27, p. 90, May, 1914 
Taochow, Kansu, China. 

K.-R Nguluko, Yunnan 85. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 299 

A very large series of Norway rats was obtained by Stevens at 
Nguluko, just north of Likiang. In view of their great abundance 
there, it is worthy of remark that they were not taken at any other 
locality on his entire route from Burma to northern Szechwan. 

Rattus rattus sladeni Anderson. SLADEN'S BROWN RAT. 

Miis sladeni Anderson, Anat. Zool. Res. W. Yunnan, p. 305, 1878 Kakhyen 

Hills, Yunnan. 
Rattus rattus sladeni Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 217, p. 2, June 16, 1926. 

K.-R. Ba Nam Nhung, T. 7; Chapa, T. 1; Muong Bourn, T. 3; 
Muong Mo, T. 2; Muong Yo, L. 1; Phong Tho, T. 2. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 1; Pakha, T. 6. 
DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 14. 

Rats from the highlands of northwestern Tonkin answer fairly 
well to the description of sladeni as identified by Kloss and G. M. 
Allen. The distinction of R. r. sikkimensis from this form seems 
doubtful, but R. r. hainanicus, as judged by a single adult topotype, 
has larger audital bullae as well as a longer tail. Large bullae, 
however, are given as characteristic of R. r. thai (Kloss, Jour. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Siam, 2, p. 286, 1917) from Raheng, Siam, of which no 
specimens have been examined in this connection. 

Specimens referred to sladeni by G. M. Allen from Namting 
River at the Burma border and kindly loaned by the American 
Museum of Natural History include one very bright-colored example, 
but are essentially like the material from Tonkin. The largest of 
the Burmese specimens does not equal the largest from Tonkin. 
Respective measurements of these two are: total length 378, 433; 
tail 208, 232; hind foot 35, 38. In length of tail, therefore, the 
Tonkin rats equal hainanicus. 

A specimen from Chapa is doubtfully placed here, its skull possibly 
being mismated. There is variation in the number of mammae, 
some specimens having twelve and others ten. 

The specimens from southern Laos, of which only a few are 
adults, show no distinction from those of Tonkin. The females 
among them have twelve mammae. 

Rattus nitidus Hodgson. 

Mus nitidus Hodgson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (1), 15, p. 267, 1845 Nepal. 
Mus griseipectus Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 7, p. 93, 
1871 Szechwan, China. 



300 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Rattus nitidiis Hinton, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 26, p. 412, May, 1919. 
Rattus griseipectus Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 217, p. 7, June 16, 1926. 

K.-R. Szechwan: Kulu 13; Muli 1; Yatsu 1. Yunnan: Lutzulu 
3; Nguluko 1; Yungning 16. 

Receipt of a large series of Rattus nitidus from Sikkim reveals 
essential agreement with material from southern and western China 
for which the name griseipectus has recently been in use. Even 
subspecific recognition of griseipectus seems doubtful. In some of 
the Chinese specimens there is a tendency to the development of 
an irregular white line on the breast or midventral region. Else- 
where the hairs of the under parts are with dark bases and dull 
buffy or silvery whitish tips. In the series from Sikkim similar varia- 
tions are found. Rattus nitidus obsoletus from the Chin Hills, Burma, 
has not been examined. Two specimens without skulls in the 
Delacour collection from Chapa, Tonkin, seem closely allied to or 
identical with nitidus. Under the name griseipectus the species has 
been recorded by Allen from Fukien and Hainan, but it appears 
to be rare in Tonkin. 

Rattus concolor Blyth. LITTLE BURMESE RAT. 

Mus concolor Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 28, p. 295, 1859 Schwegyin, Burma. 

DEL. 1931-32. Pakse, L. 1. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 10. 

WULSIN 1924. Luang Prabang, L. 1. 

This small, dark-colored rat is evidently confined to river high- 
ways and the coast region. Since it is habitually a dweller in houses, 
it may have been introduced into Indo-China. Originally described 
from Burma, it has been recorded also from Siam and the Malay 
Peninsula. The present Annam record seems to be the easternmost 
for the species. In some specimens there is a dark line on the feet 
as in R. flavipectus, but the smaller size, shorter pelage, and the 
possession of only four pairs of mammae are unmistakable. 

A specimen from Luang Prabang belonging to the United States 
National Museum is tentatively referred to concolor although it is 
much more rufescent than the others and has various minor peculi- 
arities. One from Pakse, farther south, on the left bank of the 
Mekong River, is normal. 

JR. sakaratensis of Siam (Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svenska Vet. 
Handl., 57, No. 2, p. 46, pi. VI, figs. 6, 9, 1916), as noted by Kloss 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 301 

(Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 3, p. 381, 1919), seems not to be allied 
to concolor. 

Rattus flavipectus Milne-Edwards. BUFF-BREASTED RAT. 

Mus flavipectus Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 7, p. 93, 
1871 Mouping, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Bactan Trai, T. 1; Ba Nam Cai, T. 9; Ba Nam Nhung, 
T. 13; Chapa, T. 3; Lai Chau, T. 3; Lieng San, T. 1; Muong Bourn, 
T. 2; Muong Mo, T. 23; Muong Moun, T. 12; Muong Yo, L. 3; 
Nguluko, Yunnan 2; Nong Lum, T. 1; Pa Ham, T. 9; Phong Saly, 
L. 18; Phong Tho, T. 5. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2; Pakha, T. 2. 

WULSIN 1924. Lai Chau, T. 16. 

As indicated by the large number of specimens collected, this 
rat is very common in the highlands of northwestern Tonkin. On 
the other hand, only two specimens appear in the collections made 
by Stevens in Yunnan and, although the type came from Szechwan, 
recent collectors have taken the species there only in small numbers. 
So far as examined, the northern specimens have the dingy appear- 
ance usual in house rats while the southern ones mostly are clean, 
bright and trim-looking as in a native species. 

At present, it is difficult to make any separation of a southeastern 
form. The material from Tonkin shows considerable variation in 
color of the under parts, but the proportion of specimens in which 
the entire lower surface is heavily ochraceous is very large and the 
breast stripe is practically always well marked. Specimens from 
Fukien seem to be similar, although no very satisfactory material 
is available, and the same is true of more northern specimens. 

Apparently there is no tendency in Tonkin toward R. f. yunnan- 
ensis with its lighter under parts and heavier molars. This latter 
form, however, is closely allied to a representative of flavipectus 
found in northern India and described by Hinton as Rattus rattus 
tistae (Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 26, p. 68, 1918). A large series 
from Sikkim and Bengal Presidency recently received at Field 
Museum amply shows this to be the case. It is evident, therefore, 
that tistae (and probably also bhotia) should be associated with 
flavipectus rather than with rattus. As compared with flavipectus 
from Tonkin, tistae is somewhat larger with a longer foot and heavier 
molars and much lighter under parts. Specimens from Upper Burma 
referred to yunnanensis by G. M. Allen appear to be intermediate 



302 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

between tistae and Tonkinese flavipectus, although probably nearer 
tistae with which they agree in their heavier molars. Specimens 
from the actual type locality of yunnanensis are not available and 
will be required before names can be allocated with certainty. Mean- 
while there is strong probability that tistae should be united with 
yunnanensis. 

Rattus flavipectus molliculus Robinson and Kloss. 

Rattus molliculus Robinson and Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, p. 97, 
1922 Daban, Phanrang, Annam. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 30. 

A lengthy and variable series of rats from east-central Annam 
appears closely allied to the form described as Rattus molliculus from 
southern Annam. This conclusion is based mainly upon the original 
description without actual comparison of specimens. It appears also 
that there is connection with R. flavipectus, since the series in hand 
shows numerous evidences of intergradation with that species. 

In color this series is considerably paler than flavipectus and the 
upper parts in some specimens are not far from those of R. In. exiguus. 
The under parts range from those that are entirely white to those 
with pure white only on the lower belly, the hairs elsewhere having 
dark bases and white or pale buffy tips. In most cases the body 
color is continued to the upper side of the front feet, but is paler 
and less contrasted than in flavipectus. The hind feet are entirely 
white in twenty-four specimens, but in six others a dark marking 
is evident. The fulvous breast-marking varies from a scarcely 
discernible spot to a wide stripe extending to the forepart of the 
belly. Adults are slightly larger than in flavipectus. A very large 
one and one of average size offer the following collector's measure- 
ments: total length 401, 346; tail 227, 177; hind foot 35, 33. The 
number of mammae is usually ten, but in one specimen, at least, 
there are twelve. 

R. molliculus as described does not show fulvous breast-markings 
and is evidently like some of the lighter-colored examples in the 
present series. It is recorded from Ba Na Kham, east of Outeradit, 
northern Siam, and from Ban Tuoi, Mekong River, near Pissai, 
Laos, as well as from the type locality in Annam. 

Rattus humiliatus exiguus Howell. 

Rattus rattus exiguus Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 40, p. 43, March, 1927 
southwest of Yenping, Fukien. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 1. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 303 

A single immature specimen may be referred to this form which 
appears to differ from typical humiliatus mainly in its wholly blackish 
tail. A "cotype" of humiliatus collected by Pere David and now 
labeled "Suenhoafu, Pekin" is in the British Museum. The end 
of its tail is missing, but otherwise it is in good condition although 
doubtless originally preserved "in spirit." The color is decidedly 
rufescent, perhaps partly due to preservative, but another specimen 
collected more recently (1903) near Nanking is only slightly paler. 
The feet are white in both specimens and the tail is definitely 
bicolored. This last character distinguishes it from specimens from 
Fukien, Hainan, and Annam, all of which have entirely blackish 
tails. 

It seems evident, therefore, that two eastern forms of humiliatus 
may be recognized, one with a bicolored tail ranging from Nanking 
northward and the other with a blackish unicolored tail extending 
south to northern Annam. For the southern form, the name exiguus 
is available. Examination of the type and several topotypes of 
exiguus, loaned by the United States National Museum, shows them 
to be allied to humiliatus rather than to rattus. Aside from their 
unicolored tails, they differ from humiliatus in paler, less rufescent 
color. Externally they agree with series from Hainan and the cranial 
differences which may be noted are supported by such a small number 
of specimens and localities that separation of another form from 
Hainan does not yet seem advisable. The type of exiguus and one 
adult topotype have skulls in which the interorbital region is more 
abruptly constricted, the rostral part of the skull more slender, and 
the braincase wider than is usually the case in skulls from Hainan. 
The single specimen from Annam shows a narrow midventral line 
of buffy like the body color. Such a line does not appear in the small 
series from Fukien, but in a considerable number from Hainan there 
is at least one in which a similar line appears. 

Rattus humiliatus celsus Allen. 

Rattus humiliatus celsus Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 217, p. 5, June, 1926 
Taku Ferry, west bank of Yangtze River, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Baurong, Szechwan 1; Mulu, Szechwan 4. 

These are somewhat brighter, more rufescent in color than topo- 
types loaned for comparison by the American Museum of Natural 
History. The northernmost specimen, from Baurong, has especially 
heavy cheek-teeth and the whole series, as compared with specimens 



304 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

from Hainan, indicates that heaviness of the molars is probably a 
marked character of the race. 

Rattus f ulvescens Gray. 

Mus fulvescens Gray, Cat. Mamm. Nepal & Thibet, ed. 1, p. 18, 1846 Nepal. 

Cotypes in British Museum. 

Leggada jerdoni Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 32, p. 350, 1863 Sikkim. 
Epimys fulvescens Wroughton, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 24, p. 427, 1916 

fulvescens replaces jerdoni. 

Rattus fulvescens Wroughton, supra cit., p. 772, 1916. 
Rattus huang vulpicolor G. M. Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 217, p. 14, June 16, 

1926 Namting River at Burma border. 

K.-R. Chapa, T. 6; Lieng San, T. 4; Lung Lunh, A. 1; Muong 
Bourn, T. 1; Phong Saly, L. 13. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 47. 

This species, long known by the name jerdoni, is represented in 
the British Museum by a few modern specimens from Nepal or near- 
by localities and by a large number from Sikkim and Assam somewhat 
farther east. The series includes both the spiny and the soft pelages 
together with variations and different stages between the two, 
altogether presenting a great range of color. A further series from 
Sikkim is now in Field Museum together with some thirty-six speci- 
mens from Fukien as well as a few from Hainan. Careful study of 
all this material in connection with the large accessions from Indo- 
China indicates that as a species fulvescens ranges at least from 
northeastern India across northern Burma and Tonkin and extends 
into China in Szechwan, Yunnan and Fukien. Within this area, 
it is difficult or practically impossible to differentiate more than 
two subspecies, typical fulvescens, which is the more southern 
form, and Rattus fulvescens huang, which appears to be confined 
to China. 

Two topotypes of R. h. vulpicolor, loaned by the American 
Museum of Natural History, are quite indistinguishable from speci- 
mens of fulvescens in the same pelage from Sikkim. They also agree 
in detail with various examples from Tonkin. The naming of 
vulpicolor by Allen was, in effect, only the recognition of fulvescens 
which was, at the time, unknown to him. 

Although a lengthy series is available from Fukien, the winter 
pelage is not well represented and there is only slight indication 
that this pelage may be brighter than in fulvescens. Aside from the 
possibility that it may average slightly smaller and shorter-tailed, 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 305 

huang seems characterized mainly by a reduction or absence of dusky 
markings on the feet. These markings are not invariably present in 
fulvescens but are very pronounced in a large percentage of specimens. 
The position of specimens from Hainan is doubtful. G. M. Allen 
referred them to huang, but with a considerably smaller series than 
that examined by him, I find them easier to place with fulvescens 
from Tonkin. Although taken in December, they are in bright- 
colored, spiny pelage. They average slightly larger than huang and 
in several instances have dark markings on the feet. 

The disposition of Mus ling (Bonhote, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
Abstr. No. 23, p. 19, 1905) from Chin Feng Ling, Fukien, is perhaps 
uncertain, but probabilities favor its elimination as a pure synonym 
of huang. Smaller size is all that could be claimed for it and in 
most specimens examined this seems due to immaturity. The type 
of ling in the British Museum is at most adolescent although its 
teeth show slight signs of wear. A specimen from Quangtri, Annam, 
is closely similar to this type, but is obviously not fully mature. 
In a large series from Fukien in the British Museum, doubtless 
determined by Bonhote, the great majority are called ling and are 
preponderantly immatures, while only a few very old and rich- 
colored examples are labeled huang. In all large series the immatures 
are noticeably smaller than adults and among senescents individuals 
of exceptional size are not uncommon. Mere size in small series or 
individuals, therefore, may be misleading. Eastern series of fulvescens 
average very slightly larger than western but it does not seem 
sufficient ground for separation. 

The relationship of fulvescens to southern forms is obvious in 
several instances, especially in that of R. j. bukit which can at most 
be no more than a subspecies and has been so regarded by Gylden- 
stolpe (Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 3, p. 165, 1919). It is somewhat 
duller in color than fulvescens but otherwise agrees closely. A speci- 
men from Lung Lunh, Annam, in the present collection may be 
approaching it. Other southern forms may be allied, but close 
comparisons have not been made. R. f. mentosus, which was also 
examined in this connection, is perhaps a local form of fulvescens, 
but the material representing it is very unsatisfactory, and, until 
topotypes are obtained, including different ages and pelages, its 
status is likely to be a matter of opinion. The type series includes 
only very old, oversized examples with much worn, but rather heavy 
teeth, and the skins are in an unusual, worn, grayish pelage. The 
skulls are long and narrow with very long, cuneate nasals which, 



306 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

with the heavy molars, suggest relationship to confucianus. The 
audital bullae, however, are relatively small as in fulvescens. This 
character usually distinguishes fulvescens from confucianus, but 
whether mentosus is a local form of fulvescens or of confucianus is 
not certain. 

Rattus fulvescens champa Robinson and Kloss. 

Rattus bukit champa Robinson & Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, p. 96, 
1922 Langbian Peaks, Annam. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 7. 

These are darker and more spiny than specimens of fulvescens 
from Tonkin. In view of this and their geographical position, their 
reference to subspecies champa seems justified. 

Rattus confucianus Milne-Edwards. 

Mus confucianus Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 7, 
p. 93, 1871 Szechwan. 

K.-R. Szechwan: Muli 8; Tupakeo 1; 20 miles south of Tze 
La Lee 5; Wushi 13; Yulongkong 18. Yunnan: near Lutzulu 2; 
district north of Likiang in bend of Yangtze River 3; Nguluko 6. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Vicinity of Chapa, T. 73. 

Stevens did not take this species until he reached the Likiang 
highlands. His collection includes both winter and summer speci- 
mens, showing the usual color variations and no example which is 
of unusual size. 

The very large series from the vicinity of Chapa, Tonkin, covers 
a wide range of variation in size and color. Reference of this series 
to confucianus is not wholly satisfactory, but, until relationships 
in the group are better understood, it seems advisable. A consider- 
able number of the specimens are labeled "Lo Qui Ho," which is in 
the highland above Chapa at an elevation of 9,000 feet or more. 
Others, obviously the same, are simply labeled "Chapa"; but, since 
all were brought in by natives, there is no certainty as to the exact 
elevation at which any particular one was taken. Apparently R. 
confucianus is found exclusively at the higher elevations and is 
replaced at lower levels by R. fulvescens, with the possibility that 
both may occur together at certain points. 

Distinction of R. confucianus and R. fulvescens in overlapping 
areas, while generally obvious, is often very difficult as to individual 
specimens. In confucianus and its forms, the size is larger, the color 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 307 

darker, the tail is frequently white-tipped and the breast marked 
with fulvous; the audital bullae are larger and more globose, the 
nasals longer and more compressed behind, and the molars are 
heavier. Apparent contradictions in these characters or in the 
combination of them crop out in disquieting manner in a number 
of instances, but they hold in such a large proportion that their 
significance is scarcely to be doubted. 

The specimens from the highlands of Tonkin apparently average 
somewhat larger and with coarser and more richly colored pelage 
than typical confurianus, but in view of the names andersoni and 
excelsior, applied to northern examples of large size, it is evident 
that size variations may be considerable. The Tonkin material 
differs from R. c. lotipes of Hainan in possessing pronounced dark 
markings on the feet. 

Measurements of ten of the larger specimens from Tonkin are 
as follows: head and body 162.6 (152-173); tail 235 (220-255); hind 
foot with claws (measured dry) 33.3 (32-35). It appears, there- 
fore, that some of them nearly or quite reach the size of R. andersoni. 
A large skull measures: greatest length 43.5; zygomatic width 18; 
interorbital constriction 6.4; nasals 16.8; diastema 12; palatine slits 
7.5; cheek-teeth 6.6. If the number of specimens were limited to a 
few representing extremes, a nomenclatural division might easily 
be induced, but with very large series at hand, the only satisfactory 
conclusion is that the variations and relationships in this group will 
not be thoroughly understood until a competent student combines 
field observation with subsequent study of much more and better 
material than is now in hand. 

Rattus indosinicus sp. nov. 

Type from Chapa, Tonkin. No. 31,993 Field Museum of Natural 
History. Young male. Collected Feb. 15, 1929, by Harold J. 
Coolidge, Jr. Orig. No. 6. 

Diagnosis. A rat of moderate size, with soft or spiny pelage 
according to age and season, and tail about 40 per cent longer than 
head and body. Superficially similar to R. confudanus and R. 
fulvescens, but tail wholly blackish and hallucal claw somewhat 
reduced in adaptation to scansorial habits. Mammae 2-2 = 8. 

Color. Upper parts mixed dusky and Ochraceous Tawny, the 
sides only slightly paler than the back. Under parts entirely pure 
white to roots of hairs, in older specimens becoming creamy or 



308 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

tinged with yellowish. Fore feet white or with an extension of 
body color to the base of the toes; hind feet similar, the dark area 
variable and not well defined in the younger examples; tail entirely 
blackish both above and below. 

Skull. Generally similar to that of R. confucianus but with a 
more expanded braincase, wider interorbital space, shorter nasals, 
and more highly developed supraorbital ridges. Similar also to 
that of Chiromyscus chiropus except in smaller size, in less prominent 
postorbital processes, and in more projecting infraorbital plate. 
Cheek-teeth relatively wide, heavy and brachyodont; first upper 
tooth with its anterior lamina only slightly indented on its antero- 
internal surface. 

Measurements. Collector's measurements of three specimens, 
adult, subadult, and adolescent: total length 331, 324, 285; tail 
192, 192, 160; hind foot 29, 31, 29. Skulls of same specimens: 
greatest length 38.1, 36, 34; condylo-basal length 35, 33.5, 31; 
zygomatic width 16.4, 17.6, 16.4; interorbital constriction 6.1, 6, 
6.1; width of braincase 14.9, 15.6, 14.8; nasals 12.2, 12.3, 12.3; 
interparietal 10.4 x 6.6, 11.2 x 5.4, 10.5 x 5.4; diastema 10.1, 9, 8.2; 
width of infraorbital plate 4, 3.7, 3.6; cheek-teeth (crowns) 6.2, 5.8, 
6.3; (alveoli) 7, 6.4, 7; width of front upper molar 1.9, 1.9, 2. 

Remarks. Attention was at first drawn to this species by the 
wholly blackish tails of the three specimens representing it. These 
three specimens, all from Chapa, include one in spiny pelage, taken 
by Delacour and Lowe, and two obtained by the Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition, one of the latter in very long, soft pelage without spines, 
and the other with but a few well-concealed spines. The mammary 
formula, 2-2 = 8, is well shown in one specimen. In a hasty pre- 
liminary assorting of the collections, before skulls were cleaned, one 
of them was placed with Chiromyscus chiropus in the belief that it 
might be a young example of that animal and the two others fell 
among the supposed variations of R. confucianus. In all the large 
series of confucianus and fulvescens from Chapa, numbering well 
over one hundred specimens, invariably the tail is at least irregularly 
bicolored, so these two with dark tails were later eliminated. 

The discovery that certain cranial characters were correlated 
with the dark tails established the distinctness of the species from 
confucianus and fulvescens. It is possible that further study will 
demonstrate a close relationship to R. cremoriventer, a dark-tailed 
species of the upper Malay Peninsula with which actual comparisons 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 309 

have not been made. Apparently cremoriventer is smaller and more 
spiny, with weaker teeth and a narrower infraorbital plate. It 
seems not to have been recorded in any of the numerous collections 
from continental Siam. 

The very small representation of this species in the collection 
is perhaps accounted for by the probability that its habits are more 
arboreal than is the case with the other rats of the region excepting 
Chiromyscus. It may not be especially allied to Chiromyscus, but 
in cranial characters there is little except size to separate it. In 
the British Museum are two specimens which may deserve further 
examination as possibly belonging to this species. One of these 
is from the Chin Hills, fifty miles west of Kindat, Burma (No. 
16.3.26.58.) and the other from Margherita, Naga Hills, Assam 
(No. 20.6.7.34.). 

Rattus sp. ? 

A single specimen from Phong Saly, Laos, obviously belongs to 
a species not otherwise represented in the collection. Without 
material representing many of the species described from Siam, it 
seems best not to hazard an opinion as to its relationships. It is 
dull brown in color, the under parts uniformly with dark-based hairs 
tipped with buffy. The pelage is very soft and full, the ears rather 
large and the hind feet very large. The skull is relatively flat, with 
a broad braincase, small audital bullae, and heavy cheek-teeth. 
Collector's measurements are: total length 299; tail 153; hind foot 
36.5. 

Rattus surifer finis Kloss. 

Epimys surifer finis Kloss, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 51, March, 1916 Klong 
Menao, southeastern Siam. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 2; Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 3. 
DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 14 (8 ale.). 

The specimens from Phong Saly are quite as bright-colored as 
typical surifer, but they agree with finis in the extension of white 
areas from the arms and legs to the hands and feet. The specimens 
from Quangtri are slightly smaller, darker, and with the under parts 
pure white instead of creamy. Rattus s. siarma (Kloss, Jour. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Siam, 3, p. 75, 1918) of northwest Siam has not been 
examined. The specimens from southern Laos are soft-pelaged, 
practically without spines, and may be approaching Rattus surifer 
moi of southern Annam. 



310 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Rattus sabanus revertens Robinson and Kloss. 

Rattus sabanus revertens Robinson and Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, 
p. 95, Jan., 1922 Daban, Phanrang, Annam. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 1; Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 1. 

Besides two specimens in Field Museum, there are from the same 
region four others in the British Museum, one from Backan, Tonkin, 
one from Nap, Laos, and two from Xieng Kuang, Laos. These 
northernmost representatives of the sabanus group, which is 
essentially Malayan, may be referred tentatively to revertens although 
comparison with the type of that form has not been made. Externally 
they are remarkably similar to R. s. vociferans of peninsular Siam 
and Tenasserim, but certain slight cranial characters seem to dis- 
tinguish them. The root of the zygoma is somewhat weaker, the 
infraorbital plate averages narrower, more sloping, and the anterior 
palatine foramina are longer and more expanded laterally, in this 
last respect approaching some of the forms of R. edwardsi, notably 
R. e. listen. 

That there is any actual gradation between the sabamis-voci- 
ferans series and edwardsi is perhaps improbable, but their very close 
relationship is scarcely to be doubted. A somewhat cursory examina- 
tion of the two groups leads to a pronounced feeling that they are 
quite distinct, but constant cranial characters that will hold for all 
the forms of both groups are difficult to define. Comparing only 
typical skulls of edwardsi and vociferans, it is found that edwardsi is 
larger, with a very heavy muzzle, large palatal slits, larger audital 
bullae, heavier molars and larger interparietal. In most cases, the 
size of the interparietal coupled with that of the molars is sufficient, 
but with forms like listen in one series and like the present one in 
the other, confidence might be shaken if it were not for the coloration 
and external characters. 

The single immature example from Quangtri, Annam, has the 
distal half of the tail white as in the unique type of R. s. herberti 
but shows no indication of extension of white to the eye as in that 
form. 

Rattus sabanus subsp. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 2. 

These may be regarded provisionally as intermediates between 
R. s. revertens and R. s. herberti. They are smaller and paler than 
revertens, the under parts are white rather than yellowish white, and 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 311 

in one of them the white is only narrowly separated from the lower 
edge of the eye. The terminal part of the tail is white for two- 
thirds its length in one specimen and one-third in the other. 

Rattus edwardsi Thomas. EDWARDS'S GIANT RAT. 

Mus edwardsi Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 587, pi. 44, 1882 Kuatun, 
Fukien, China. 

K.-R. Lieng San, T. 2; Muong Moun, T. 1; Phong Saly, L. 1. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 16. 

Five adults from Ngai Tio, Tonkin, in the British Museum seem 
nearest to typical edwardsi although, as suggested by Thomas (1925, 
p. 503), they tend somewhat towards JR. edwardsi listen. Color 
differences between edwardsi and listen are difficult to appreciate, 
but in general listen seems to be slightly more saturate with ruddier 
tones, less grayish than edwardsi. The skull of edwardsi differs 
from that of listen in larger size, heavier molars, larger palatal slits, 
and larger audital bullae. In respect to the palatal slits the Tonkin 
specimens are nearer to listen, but in all the other characters men- 
tioned they are nearer to edwardsi. The type of listen has an 
abnormally short toothrow, scarcely longer than in vociferans, but 
other specimens from Assam, as well as those representing R. edwardsi 
garonum, have somewhat larger molars, nearly or quite equaling 
those of the skulls from Tonkin. 

The various forms of R. edwardsi, both continental and insular, 
might conveniently be regarded as subspecies. In most cases grada- 
tion is already apparent, while in others it is more than probable. 
The following list of them is perhaps incomplete, but may be helpful 
to the next worker with the group. 

Rattus edwardsi Thomas, Kuatun, Fukien, China. 
e. listen Thomas, Pashok, Darjeeling, India. 
e. garonum Thomas, Garo Hills, Assam. 
e. gigas Satunin, near Lun-gan-fu, Szechwan. 
e. ciliatus Bonhote, Gunong, Selangor, Malay States. 
e. setiger Robinson and Kloss, Barison Range, Sumatra. 
e. milleti Robinson and Kloss, Dalat, southern Annam. 

Rattus bowersi latouchei Thomas. LATOUCHE'S GIANT RAT. 

Mus latouchei Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 20, p. 113, 1897 Kuatun, 
Fukien, China. 

K.-R. Chapa, T. 1; Phong Saly, L. 4. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 18. 



312 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Specimens in the British Museum from Backan, Tonkin, Xieng 
Kuang, Laos, and Ngai Tio, Tonkin, all of which are called bowersi by 
Thomas, might better be referred to latouchei which is no more than 
a slight subspecies of bowersi. Perhaps latouchei may be somewhat 
paler in color than bowersi but otherwise it seems to differ only in 
one slight cranial character. In bowersi the nasals are extended 
posteriorly beyond the premaxillae whereas in latouchei the nasals 
and premaxillae end evenly. In this respect the Tonkin and Laos 
specimens agree with latouchei from Kuatun, Fukien, China. 

The skull of R. bowersi is markedly different from that of R. 
edwardsi and other so-called "giant rats" of southeastern Asia. The 
braincase is peculiarly truncate behind, giving an essentially tri- 
angular appearance to the whole skull. The interparietal is frequently 
subtriangular with an anterior apex instead of being elliptical. The 
orbital ridges are rather weak and mainly confined to the frontals, 
their continuation over the parietals being faint. The audital bullae 
are relatively large and the incisors pale. A closely related species 
is R. ferreocanus of the Malay Peninsula, which has smaller audital 
bullae, but is otherwise so similar to bowersi that intergradation 
between the two is not improbable. Other species of smaller size 
and well distinguished, but having the same type of skull and similar 
external appearance, are manipulus, mackenziei, and berdmorei. 
Rattus bowersi lactiventer also has been named from northwestern 
Siam (Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 3, p. 80, 1919). 

Chiromyscus chiropus Thomas. BURMESE CLIMBING RAT. 

Mus chiropus Thomas, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Gen., (2), 10, p. 884, 1891; 

ibid., p. 935, pi. 11, figs. 4-7, 1892 Carin Hills, northeast of Tounghoo, 

southern Burma. 
Chiromyscus chiropus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 503, 1925. 

K.-R. Ba Nam Nhung, T. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Bao Ha, T. 1; Dakto, A. 2; Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

With the exception of the type in alcohol, the specimens enumer- 
ated above include all the known examples of this interesting rat. 
One of the recent examples is the first female to be examined and 
affords the information that the mammary formula is 2-2 = 8. 

Mus musculus Linnaeus. HOUSE MOUSE. 

Mus musculus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 62, 1758. 
K.-R. Lai Chau, T. 1; Nguluko, Yunnan 9. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 313 

The only example of the common house mouse in the entire 
collection from Indo-China is one taken at Lai Chau by Coolidge. 
A small series was obtained in Yunnan by Stevens. 

Mus bactrianus kakhyensis Anderson. 

Mus kakhyensis Anderson, Anat. Zool. Res. W. Yunnan, p. 307, 1878 
Ponsee, Kakhyen Hills, Yunnan. 

Mus bactrianus kakhyensis Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 270, p. 9, May, 1927. 

K.-R. Ba Nam Cai, T. 3; Muong Bourn, T. 13; Muong Mo, 
T. 1; Muong Moun, T. 5; Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 6; Phong Saly, 
L. 1. 

These agree in detail with specimens from Hainan referred to 
this subspecies by G. M. Allen. 

The external resemblance of the Indo-Chinese specimens to 
species recently referred to "Leggada" (as nitidulus and nagarum) 
and also the cranial characters shown by them led to a somewhat 
hasty reexamination of the evidence for the separation of Mus and 
Leggada as full genera. This is a matter which Oldfield Thomas 
evidently had in mind for further investigation. In referring speci- 
mens from Tonkin and Annam to Mus dubius, he states (1927, p. 55) : 
"This determination is of necessity merely provisional, as the com- 
plexities of the Mus-Leggada group are such as to demand quite a 
special study, with more material than is yet available." 

Since the specimens which Thomas had in hand were obviously 
different from typical dubius, I am inclined to infer, from a con- 
siderable knowledge of his character and methods, that he refrained 
from definite action, not because of any doubt as to their distinctness 
from dubius and its allies, but because his faith was somewhat 
shaken as to the characters previously used in separating Mus and 
Leggada. It was this question that he wished to have subjected to 
careful study. I am unable to devote the time necessary for such 
a study, but, after a brief review of the Asiatic forms, am much 
impressed with the difficulties involved in maintaining any sharp 
line between Mus and Leggada. Their status is plainly only pro- 
visional and, under these circumstances, it seems less confusing to 
subordinate them to no more than subgeneric rank until such time 
as a comprehensive study can be made. 

The present form, although doubtless properly placed as a sub- 
species of bactrianus, shows slight tendencies toward the characters 
of Leggada. However, there can be no doubt that it falls definitely 



314 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

into the section Mus, as defined by Thomas (Jour. Bomb. Nat. 
Hist. Soc., 26, pp. 417-420, May, 1919). The genotype of Leggada 
(booduga), on the other hand, is one of those species in which there 
is some approach to Mus, since it has rather broad, flattened nasals, 
a wide infraorbital plate which extends forward beyond the middle 
of the palatal slits, and a muzzle which, although longer than in 
typical Mus, is shorter than in most other species assigned to Leggada. 

In the considerable series of kakhyensis now available, there is 
some variation in size. A series in the British Museum from Kontoun, 
southern Annam, appears very closely allied, but averages smaller, 
with skulls not so elongate as in the northern specimens from Tonkin. 

Mus (Leggada) nitidulus annamensis Kloss. 

Tauiatus thai annamensis Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, p. 99, 1922 
Dalat, Langbian Plateau, Annam. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 3. 

The names thai and annamensis (Tautatus thai Kloss, Jour. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Siam, 2, p. 280, Dec., 1917; idem, 3, p. 71, 1918; Tautatus 
thai annamensis Kloss, supra cit.) seem to apply to forms of the 
Leggada series, and the generic name Tautatus, which was coupled 
with them is, therefore, an undoubted synonym of Leggada. This 
was the conclusion of Thomas, who left notes to this effect written 
on the margin of his personal copies of the original descriptions. Of 
Tautatus thai, he says, "Seems to be-= Leggada cooki Ryley"; of 
annamensis his notation is, "Probably local race of nitidula." 

The types of both thai and annamensis, with additional speci- 
mens, were submitted to Thomas for examination shortly before his 
death and are still in the custody of the British Museum where I 
have been privileged to examine them. The type of annamensis is 
imperfect about the palatal and infraorbital regions but is clearly 
a long-muzzled animal with the heavier molars which usually dis- 
tinguish from Mus. A topotype accompanying it leaves no doubt 
that this is the case. It is dark-colored and short-tailed and doubtless 
recognizable specifically or subspecifically. A third specimen (No. 
3,397) from Dalat, Annam, however, is plainly Mus and probably 
allied to kakhyensis like those from Kontoum, Annam. 

The type of thai is quite immature and has the nasals shorter 
and the palatal slits more backwardly extended than usual in 
Leggada. A topotype with it is somewhat older and easily recognized 
as a Leggada. Careful examination of the two specimens is fairly 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 315 

convincing that they are conspecific, the shortness of the nasals in 
the type being outweighed by the slenderness of its muzzle, the 
slender and pale-colored upper incisors, the relatively heavy molars, 
and the general size of the skull which is somewhat greater than in 
MILS kakhyensis of corresponding age. Therefore, both thai and 
annamensis fall into the Leggada section. 

Three specimens from southern Laos, received too late for com- 
parison with material in the British Museum, are tentatively referred 
to annamensis, this being regarded as a subspecies of nitidulus. 

Mus (Leggada) pahari gairdneri Kloss. 

Leggada pahari gairdneri Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 4, p. 60, 1920 
Me Taw, 40 miles n.w. of Raheng, Siam. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 15. 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 1; Ngai Tio, T. 1; Xieng Kuang, L. 2. 

The series from Chapa averages paler and more grayish than 
in typical pahari from Sikkim. This is the principal character noted 
in the two specimens forming the basis of the name gairdneri. It is 
probable, therefore, that the form covers a considerable area in Siam 
and Indo-China. 

Dacnomys millardi ingens subsp. nov. LARGE-TOOTHED GIANT 
RAT. 

Type from Phong Saly, Laos. No. 31,986 Field Museum of 
Natural History. Adult female. Collected May 1, 1929, by Russell 
W. Hendee. Orig. No. 5,485. 

Diagnosis. Similar in color to typical millardi of Sikkim; tail 
and ears shorter; skull shorter and heavier, with shorter nasals, 
broader interorbital space, heavier anterior zygoma root, and broader 
cheek-teeth. 

Color. Upper parts uniformly mixed Cinnamon-drab and dusky, 
producing a general effect of Fuscous to Bone Brown; hands and 
feet brownish; tail set with very short, sparse hairs, dusky with a 
few irregular pale blotches; under parts variegated, the throat, inner 
sides of arms, axillary and inguinal regions pure white to roots of 
hairs; forebreast and belly mixed cinnamon-drab and whitish, the 
hairs with pale slaty bases. 

Skull. As compared with an adult skull of millardi (not the 
type), the skull is shorter throughout; nasals shorter; anterior 



316 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

zygoma root heavier; interorbital space wider; interparietal smaller 
and less produced forward; toothrow shorter and broader; anterior 
cheek-teeth slightly wider than the palatal space between them. 

Measurements. Type: total length 581; tail 308; hind foot 55; 
ear from notch (dry) 19.5. Skull of type and adult female of millardi 
(in parentheses): greatest length 55.8 (59.5); condylo-basal length 
53.5 (55.6); zygomatic width 27.6 (27.5) ; nasals 21.5 x 6.8 (24 x 6.3); 
interorbital constriction 8.7 (7.8) ; interparietal 14.5 x 7.1 (15.8 x 10) ; 
diastema 15.2 (15.5); bony palate 12.1 (12.5); upper toothrow 
(alveoli) 11.8 (12.7); width of anterior cheek-tooth 4 (3.8). 

Remarks. The discovery of the rare giant rat known as Dacnomys 
in Indo-China is of considerable interest as an extension of the range 
of the genus. The single specimen collected by Mr. Hendee is an 
adult labeled female but in the prepared skin mammae are not 
evident. Fortunately a fully adult specimen of millardi is at hand 
for comparison. This was taken by Herbert Stevens on the recent 
C. Suydam Cutting Sikkim Expedition for Field Museum. The 
locality is Mangpu, Bengal Presidency, India, and the specimen 
apparently constitutes the third known example of the species. This 
specimen is mainly dark-colored below with only slight suggestion 
of the white markings shown by the type as described, so it is evident 
there is considerable variation in this respect. It is a little duller- 
colored and harsher-pelaged than the Indo-Chinese specimen, but 
distinctions of color seem very doubtful. 

Comparison of the two skulls in hand reveals so many points of 
difference that the conclusion is unavoidable that they justify at 
least subspecific separation. Some of these differences may not 
hold good when series are examined, but if the recently obtained 
Indian specimen is at all representative, some of them must prove 
constant. Discrepancies between the measurements of the skull of 
this specimen and those of the type are perhaps due to the fact 
that it is fully adult while the type is said to be a "ymmg adult." 

Dacnomys wroughtoni of Assam, as described, is even larger 
than millardi and, therefore, still further removed from ingens. 

PBandicota sp. 

The skin of a dark grayish rat in the Delacour and Lowe collection 
from Chapa, Tonkin, is without skull and practically unidentifiable 
even as to genus. A possibility is relationship to Bandicota savilei 
curtata of Raheng, Siam, from the description of which it seems 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 317 

to differ at least in smaller size and darker color, the tail in the dried 
skin measuring only 122 mm. and the hands and feet being wholly 
blackish. 

Bandicota nemorivaga Hodgson. SMALLER BANDICOOT RAT. 

Mus (Rattus) nemorivagus Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 5, p. 234, 1836 
Nepal. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 2. 

One of these is an adult female of moderate size and the other 
a very large old male, the latter unfortunately without skull. The 
measurements of this male are: total length 552; tail 258; hind foot 
55. It is, therefore, much larger than any nemorivaga previously 
recorded and equals the size of members of the gigantea series repre- 
sented in Indo-China by jabouillei. Color and detailed cranial 
characters, however, indicate relationship to nemorivaga rather than 
jabouillei. The female is closely similar in size, color, and other 
respects to specimens of nemorivaga in the original series from Nepal. 
There is also substantial agreement with specimens of nemorivaga 
from Tengyueh, Yunnan. The form called mordax (Thomas, Jour. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc., 24, p. 642, 1916) from Chiengmai, northern 
Siam, is doubtless closely related or identical, but it is represented 
only by the type, an immature female which is insufficient to demon- 
strate its distinction from nemorivaga. 

Bandicota gigantea jabouillei Thomas. JABOUILLE'S BANDICOOT 
RAT. 

Bandicota jabouillei Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 54, 1927 Tourane, 
Annam. 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 1; Tourane, A. 1. 
Not represented in recent collections. 

Apodemus speciosus orestes Thomas. CHINESE WOOD MOUSE. 

Apodemus speciosus orestes Thomas, Abstr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 49, 
1911; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 136, 1912 Mount Omei, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Szechwan: Hlalong 1; Itze 1; Muli 6. 

On account of slightly darker color, these are referred to orestes 
rather than peninsulae to which they show close general resemblance. 

Apodemus agrarius chevrieri Milne-Edwards. 

Mits chevrieri Milne-Edwards, Rech. Hist. Nat. Mamm., p. 288, pi. 40, fig. 2, 
1868-74 Mouping, Szechwan. 



318 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

K.-R. Szechwan: Meti Long 1; Muli 1; Nien Yuen Fu 1. 
Yunnan: Nguluko 19; 45 miles north of Likiang 1; Yungning 3. 

This unstriped member of the agrarius series has such close 
external resemblance to orestes that identification of individual 
specimens is quite uncertain without recourse to the skulls. The 
absence of the small antero-external tubercle of the second upper 
molar is usually conclusive. 

Apodemus latronum Thomas. BIG-EARED WOOD MOUSE. 

Apodemus spedosus latronum Thomas, Abstr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 49, 
1911; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 137, 1912 Tatsienlu, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Szechwan: Chaulu 1; Chelo 2; Kulu 12; Wushi 21. 
Yunnan: Lutzulu, bend of Yangtze 3; 25 miles north of Likiang 1; 
45 miles north of Likiang 2; Nguluko 10. 

The large size and especially the large blackish ears of this mouse 
distinguish it readily from either agrarius and its races or spedosus 
so far as represented in Field Museum. That it grades into speciosus 
seems very doubtful and it is perhaps more probable that it will 
prove related to the large European species epimelas or flavicottis, 
neither of which is available to me as this is written. The skull is 
characterized by a large wide braincase, long flat nasals, and rather 
large cheek-teeth. In most specimens traces of a fourth outer 
tubercle on the first upper molar can be seen. Specimens from 
Yunnan average slightly smaller than those from Szechwan. 

Micromys minutus erythrotis Blyth. HARVEST MOUSE. 

Mils erythrotis Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 24, p. 721, 1855 Cherrapunji, 
Khasia Hills, Assam. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 4. 

These were received too late for direct comparison with Indian 
material and may be referred provisionally to erythrotis, the oldest 
name for any Asiatic Micromys. They are rather dark in color 
and the under parts are strongly washed with brownish Cinnamon, 
especially on the middle of the pectoral region. 

Hapalomys delacouri pasquieri Thomas. PASQUIER'S TREE RAT. 

Hapalomys pasquieri Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 57, 1927 Xieng 
Kuang, Laos. 

K.-R. Phong Saly, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Xieng Kuang, L. 1 (type). 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 319 

A good adult male specimen makes it possible to redefine this 
form, which was based on a young example giving scarcely any 
indication of its true characters except as to the reduced size of 
the molars. 

The color is essentially as in delacouri, possibly a little darker, 
with a slight suggestion of a dark eye-ring, a patch of dusky on 
the inner proximal half of the hind foot, and under parts which are 
light buff rather than white. The small, rounded ears are almost 
naked except for long sparse hairs which rise mainly from their 
margins, producing an unusual appearance. 

The skull differs from that of delacouri in having a decidedly 
wider braincase, highly developed supraorbital ridges, short slender 
nasals, and a generally short and weak antorbital region. The 
molars are definitely smaller than in delacouri although there is some 
variation between the type of that form and another specimen from 
the type locality. 

Measurements of an adult male from Phong Saly are: total 
length 292 ; tail 171 ; hind foot 22. Skull : greatest length 32 ; condylo- 
incisive length 29.7; zygomatic breadth 17.1; nasals 8.8; interorbital 
constriction 5.2; breadth of braincase 15.7; palatilar length 13.8; 
upper molar series 5.45; breadth upper premolar 1.85. 

H. delacouri, described from Dakto, Annam, is not represented 
in the collection. H. marmosa from Hainan, of which the cranial 
characters are unknown, doubtless is closely allied. 

Chiropodomys gliroides Blyth. PENCIL-TAILED TREE MOUSE. 

Mus gliroides Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 24, p. 721, 1855 Cherrapunji, 
Khasia Hills, Assam. 

K.-R. Muong Bourn, T. 1; Muong Mo, T. 3; Muong Moun, 
T. 4; Phong Saly, L. 2. 

REC. 1925-29. Dakto, A. 6. 

A single specimen from the Jaintia Hills, Assam, now in the 
British Museum, appears to be the only modern one typically repre- 
senting this species. Aside from its somewhat brighter color, 
especially about the head and the sides of the face, it is in substantial 
agreement with the small series from Tonkin and Laos. 

A series in the British Museum from southern Tenasserim, 
characterized by rather large general size and relatively small audital 
bullae, indicates that a southern subspecies should be recognized, 
probably under the name Chiropodomys gliroides peguensis. 



320 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Vandeleuria dumeticola scandens subsp. nov. LONG-TAILED 
CLIMBING MOUSE. 

Type from Muong Bourn, Tonkin. No. 32,452 Field Museum of 
Natural History. Adult male. Collected March 22, 1929, by 
Russell W. Hendee. Orig. No. 5,330. 

Diagnosis. Similar to V. dumeticola, but smaller; under parts 
tinged or washed with ochraceous instead of nearly pure white. Size 
about as in V. sibylla, but differing from that very small species 
in the shape of the braincase which is extremely inflated. 

Color. Upper parts, including ears and feet, Ochraceous Tawny; 
under parts creamy white lightly washed with ochraceous buff 
especially on the breast and interaxillary region; tail drabbish, 
slightly paler below than above. 

Skull. General form as in V. dumeticola, but braincase even 
more inflated and interorbital region correspondingly shortened; 
infraorbital plate short, scarcely projecting anteriorly; nasals short 
and narrow; incisive foramina short; teeth small, scarcely exceeding 
those of V. sibylla. 

Measurements. Type: total length 153; tail 92; hind foot (c.u.) 
17. Skull of type: greatest length 19.1; condylo-incisive length 17.1; 
nasals 6; interorbital constriction 3.2; breadth of braincase 10.1; 
palatal foramina 2.7; upper molar series 3.1. 

Remarks. In addition to the type, three specimens essentially 
like it have been examined in the British Museum. These are from 
Thai Nien, Tonkin, and Xieng Kuang, Laos, collected in 1924-25 
by Herbert Stevens and Willoughby Lowe. Three of the four speci- 
mens have a marked wash of ochraceous on the under parts. The 
third is a nursing female in somewhat worn pelage in which less of 
this wash appears, but it is quite evidently a character distinguishing 
from dumeticola in which nothing of the kind appears in a considerable 
series. 

For the present, this form may be regarded as a subspecies of 
dumeticola with which it agrees in the form of its skull. This is 
contrary to usual procedure for there is considerable possibility that 
it may be quite distinct. Series of dumeticola from Nepal through 
Assam to Upper Burma are quite uniform in size and the sudden 
diminution shown by this form in Tonkin leaves some doubt that 
intergradation exists. Until further specimens are obtained, however, 
its obvious relationship to dumeticola is best expressed by the sub- 
specific status. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 321 

With the possible exception of V. Sibylla, this is the smallest 
member of the genus. The type of Sibylla is in "spirit" and of little 
value for color characters, but its skull has a long narrow braincase, 
a wide and somewhat projecting infraorbital plate, and a thick 
rostrum, all indicating affinity to oleracea rather than to dumeticola. 

Eothenomys (Anteliomys) custos hintoni subsp. nov. HINTON'S 
VOLE. 

Type from Wushi, southwest of Tatsienlu, Szechwan, China. 
Altitude 12,000 feet. No. 33,073 Field Museum of Natural History. 
Adult female. Collected May 15, 1929, by Herbert Stevens. Orig. 
No. 322. 

Diagnosis. Similar to E. custos, but slightly larger (hind foot 
18-20) and with a longer tail, this being about two- thirds the length 
of the head and body. Skull rather small (condylo-basal length 25 
or less). Dentition somewhat as in E. c. tarquinius, the last upper 
molar with four inner and four outer salient angles. 

Color. Practically as in custos and chinensis, but feet paler. 
Upper parts grayish washed heavily with Wood Brown medially, 
this in some cases extending to sides; fore and hind feet drabbish 
white; tail dusky above and definitely lighter below; muzzle pale 
drabbish brown. 

Skull. Slightly larger than in custos, but much smaller than in 
chinensis; braincase rather high and narrow; interorbital region 
relatively wider than in chinensis, but with similar slightly elevated 
temporal ridges; nasals short, exceeded by ascending premaxillae; 
palate without median spine; molar pattern practically as in E. c. 
tarquinius and as in some specimens of custos but differing from the 
former in greater confluence of triangles and from most of the latter 
as well as from E. wardi in lacking any tendency to the development 
of an incipient fourth inner salient angle in the first upper tooth 
and a third one in the second upper tooth; last molar with four 
inner and four outer angles (in some specimens of custos and rubellus 
there are four inner angles and in others there are five). 

Measurements. Average of ten topotypes measured by the 
collector: total length 150.7 (147-158); tail 55.2 (51-59); hind foot 
19.4 (19-20). Skull of type: condylo-basal length 24.8; zygomatic 
width 14.4; interorbital constriction 4.2; occipital width 11.4; nasals 
7x3; diastema 7.6; diagonal length of audital bullae 6.4; upper 
molar series (crowns) 5.5. 



322 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Remarks. In view of the number of named forms of Eothenomys 
"known only from the type locality" and the uncertainty as to the 
full maturity of individual specimens even when selected from con- 
siderable series, the conclusion that still another form should be 
named has been reached with some reluctance and only after a 
careful review of possible alternatives. A series of fifteen specimens 
is in hand, all from one locality and all of approximately the same 
age which seems to be that of maturity, although no very aged 
examples are included. On account of their relatively long tails, 
these were at first supposed to be allied to chinensis, from which 
they do not differ greatly in color, and the idea was entertained 
that they might stand in some connecting relation between chinensis 
and A. wardi of northwestern Yunnan, which appears more closely 
related to chinensis than to any other form. Owing to their small 
size, pale feet, etc., it was found quite impossible to refer them either 
to chinensis (tarquinius) or to wardi. 

The real relationship of the new form appears to be with E. custos 
from which it is easily distinguished by its longer tail and its some- 
what simplified molars. The dentition has some superficial resem- 
blance to that of E. c. tarquinius, the last upper molar having four 
outer and four inner angles and the first and second molars showing 
no tendency to the development of fourth and third inner angles 
respectively. In the last molar, however, the third inner angle is 
usually confluent with the fourth outer, whereas in tarquinius the 
two are closed. In the fifteen specimens examined, two have the 
last upper molar with five inner angles as is commonly but not 
invariably the case in E. custos. 

Eothenomys (Anteliomys) custos rubellus Allen. 

Microtus (Anteliomys) custos rubellus Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 133, p. 5, 
1924 Ssushan, Likiang Range, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Yunnan: near Lutzulu, bend of Yangtze River 5; Nguluko 
1; 25 miles north of Likiang 1; 45 miles north of Likiang 1; 60 miles 
north of Likiang 1. 

These agree in cranial characters with topotypes of rubellus, 
but several of them are very light in color, having been taken in 
spring instead of fall, probably bridging any supposed color difference 
between custos and rubellus. 

Eothenomys proditor Hinton. 

Eothenomys proditor Hinton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 11, p. 152, 1923 
Likiang Range, Yunnan. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 323 

K.-R. Szechwan: Itze 2; Kulu 2. Yunnan: 25 miles north of 
Likiang 1; Nguluko 8. 

Except for its slightly smaller size, there seems to be no external 
character to separate this species from E. fidelis which is found in 
the same region. The skulls also are remarkably similar in general 
conformation and there remains only the rather pronounced differ- 
ences in the first and second upper molars, these having four and 
three inner triangles respectively in fidelis and three and two in 
proditor. In the last upper molars no constant difference is found. 
The first and second upper molars in proditor, therefore, are quite 
as in Anteliomys and the last molar is but slightly different from 
many specimens of A. chinensis. This makes the generic distinction 
of Eothenomys and Anteliomys very difficult and, with due deference 
to those who have devoted much study to microtines, I am inclined 
to treat them at most as subgenera. 

Eothenomys melanogaster fidelis Hinton. 

Eothenomys fidelis Hinton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 11, p. 150, 1923 
Likiang Range, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Szechwan: Kulu 2; Muli 4. Yunnan: Nguluko 1. 

In average size, these specimens do not equal the extremes 
given for fidelis and it is probable some of them should be regarded 
as furnishing the expected indication of intergradation with melano- 
gaster. In any case, there is little reason to doubt that such inter- 
gradation will be found and the retention of fidelis as a distinct 
species seems inadvisable. The specimens from Kulu, which appear 
fully developed, are larger than in melanogaster but considerably 
smaller than in typical fidelis. The last upper molar, however, is 
quite as in fidelis, with four inner salient angles instead of the three 
found in melanogaster. There is much variation in color, one speci- 
men being bright "reddish" throughout and another (collected 
March 30) being in process of changing pelage passing from a reddish 
brown coat to a much darker shade. 

Eothenomys melanogaster confini Hinton. 

Eothenomys melanogaster confini Hinton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 11, p. 151, 
1923 Kiuchiang, Salween Divide, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Chapa, T. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 8. 

Microtines, not hitherto recorded from Indo-China, were obtained 
only at one locality, a single specimen being taken by Hendee at 



324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Chapa and a series of eight by Delacour and Lowe at the same place. 
The range of dates is from Nov. 27 to Feb. 13 and the earlier speci- 
mens are darker, less "reddish," than the later ones. In color and in 
size of skulls, there is much resemblance to M. m. columns, but the 
last upper molar in all cases has four salient inner angles. Among 
the skulls are several which nearly or quite reach the dimensions of the 
unique type of M. m. miletus. The arched form of this type, as 
a subspecific character, needs confirmation by additional specimens. 
A small series from Mucheng, Salween drainage, referred to confini 
by Allen, is uniformly smaller than the Tonkin series, perhaps indicat- 
ing that the latter stand in a position intermediate between confini 
and columns. 

Rhizomys pruinosus senex Thomas. HOARY BAMBOO RAT. 

Rhizomys senex Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 16, p. 313, Oct., 1915 
near Mongtze, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Muong Bourn, T. 3; Muong Mo, T. 4; Muong Moun, 
T. 10; Pa Ham, T. 1; Phong Saly, L. 8. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 4; Hoi Xuan, A. 1; Hue, A. 1; 
Ke Saule, A. 2; Lung Lunh, A. 1; Pakha, T. 2. 

REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 10; Bao Ha, T. 6; Dakto, A. 2; 
Ngai Tio, T. 18; Nganson, T. 7; Nap6, L. 6; Xieng Kuang, L. 3. 

WULSIN 1924. Phong Saly, L. 1. 

Tonkin specimens are quite the same as those from southeastern 
Yunnan whence this form was described. Since it differs from 
typical pruinosus of Assam only in somewhat increased size, its 
close relationship is best indicated by the subspecific status. The 
same is doubtless true of latouchei and pannosus. 

Nyctocleptes sumatrensis cinereus McClelland. YELLOW- 
CHEEKED BAMBOO RAT. 

Rhizomys cinereus McClelland, Calc. Jour. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 456, 1842 

Tenasserim. 

Nyctocleptes cinereus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 16, p. 57, 1915. 
K.-R. Ba Nam Nhung, T. 2; Muong Mo, T. 2; Muong Moun, 
T. 2; Phong Saly, L. 1. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hoi Xuan, A. 3. 

DEL. 1931-32. Banphone, L. 1; Thateng, L. 10. 

Among these specimens are some, perhaps a majority, that are 
lighter in color than available examples from Tenasserim and Siam, 
but it is evident that variation due to age and pelage is considerable. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 325 

Specimens from the northern Shan States of Burma, doubtless 
representing the erythrogenys of Anderson, are much larger than 
any others examined, but the recognition of a separate form in that 
region is dubious. Southern specimens in general seem to be some- 
what smaller than northern and to have the ferruginous of the head 
slightly deeper in shade. 

Thomas (I.e.) proposed Nyctocleptes as a genus to include the 
nominal species sumatrensis, cinereus, and insularis which are so 
closely related that the genus may be considered as practically 
monotypic. Its distinction from Rhizomys rests mainly on characters 
of the plantar pads and mammae the significance of which may be 
a matter of opinion. 

Although now represented by specimens from a number of 
localities, this strikingly colored bamboo rat appears not to have 
been recorded previously from Indo-China. 

Hystrix (Acanthion) brachyurus subcristatus Swinhoe. SHORT- 
TAILED PORCUPINE. 

Hystrix subcristatus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 638, 1870 Foochow, 
Fukien. 

K.-R. Muong Moun, T. 1; Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 1. 
REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 1; Hug, A. 1. 

The two specimens in hand are not fully mature and no direct 
comparisons have been made with material from other localities, so 
their reference to subcristatus is provisional. Apparently brachyurus 
of Malaysia, klossi of Tenasserim and Siam, papae of Hainan, and 
subcristatus of Fukien differ from each other, if at all, mainly in size, 
and the identification of individual specimens from intermediate 
localities is fairly hopeless. 

Lonnberg's contention (Archiv. f. Zool., 15, No. 18, 1923) that 
no sharp lines can be drawn in generic distinction of Hystrix and 
Acanthion seems well grounded and based on the examination of 
a large and varied number of species. The outward resemblance of 
certain species of Acanthion to Hystrix extends even to color and 
markings and with a wide variation in cranial characters, all of a 
relative nature, generic separation has little or no advantage. 

The relationship of Atherurus to Acanthion is not very distant. 
A skull in Field Museum representing Thecurus(!) crassispinis from 
Borneo, which is externally much like Acanthion, has well-rooted 
molars and general similarity to Atherurus. 



326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Atherurus macrourus stevensi Thomas. BRUSH-TAILED PORCU- 
PINE. 

Atherurus stevensi Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 505, July 21, 1925 

Ngai Tio, Tonkin. 
Atherurus macrourus stevensi G. M. Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 290, p. 1, 

Oct. 24, 1927. 

K.-R. Lai Chau, T. 1; Muong Moun, T. 1. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 9. 
DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 2. 

REC. 1925-29. Hue, A. 2; Nape, L. 1; Ngai Tio, T. 1 (type); 
Xieng Kuang, L. 1. 

The specimen from Muong Moun has the under parts largely 
whitish and the "wool hairs," although not abundant, are whitish 
as described for the type of stevensi. The other specimens are darker 
with the white of the under parts confined mainly to the median 
line. Specimens from Laos and Annam have been referred by Thomas 
to macrourus and it is evident that the characters of stevensi are 
not yet well understood. 

Lepus comus G. M. Allen. GRAY-TAILED HARE. 

Lepus comus G. M. Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 284, p. 9, Sept., 1927 
Tengyueh, Yunnan. 

K.-R. Nguluko, Yunnan 1; Zumpa, near Kulu, Szechwan 1. 

Two specimens of this interesting hare are in the collection. 
Their gray tails, gray rumps, and long hind feet leave no doubt of 
their identity although the dimensions of their skulls do not quite 
equal those given for the type. 

Lepus comus grahami A. B. Howell. 

Lepus grahami A. B. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 143, Oct. 15, 1928 
Ulongkong, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Ulongkong, Szechwan 1. 

This specimen, a topotype of grahami, shows some indications 
of the slight color characters mentioned in the original description. 
Like the type of grahami, it was taken in July, while all available 
specimens of typical comus bear dates of March or April. It is not 
unlikely, therefore, that the differences will prove to be seasonal; 
but until further specimens are examined the name should perhaps 
be given the benefit of the doubt. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 327 

Lepus peguensis siamensis Bonhote. SIAMESE HARE. 

Lepus siamensis Bonhote, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 40, 1902 Chiengmai, 

Siam. 
Lepus peguensis siamensis Chasen and Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 

Suppl., 8, p. 76, 1930. 

WULSIN 1924. Vientiane, L. 2. 

DEL. 1931-32. Pakse, L. 2; Thateng, L. 1. 

Two somewhat imperfect specimens in the small collection made 
by F. R. Wulsin for the United States National Museum agree 
closely with descriptions of this form which has been recorded from 
various localities in northern and central Siam. They were taken 
in July and are quite richly colored. Three specimens from southern 
Laos are in complete agreement with them. 

Lepus peguensis vassal! Thomas. 

Lepus vassali Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 17, p. 425, April, 1906 
Nhatrang, Annam. 

K.-R. Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. An Binh, C.C. 1; Djiring, A. 2; Hu, A. 2; 
Kompong Thorn, C. 3. 

The distinction of this form from siamensis is not well established. 
The present specimen, as compared with those from Vientiane 
referred above to siamensis, is paler on the head, back, and sides 
and the black on the ears is reduced. The date, however, is January 
and some of this difference may be seasonal. The size is slightly 
smaller and the skull is shorter with somewhat broader nasals. 
Apparently there is little or no distinction in the amount of white 
on the belly, although this has been mentioned by Thomas (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 58, 1927). 

Ochotona thibetana zappeyi Thomas. ZAPPEY'S PIKA. 

Ockotona zappeyi Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, p. 192, Feb., 1922 
Shuowlow, northwest of Tatsienlu, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Big bend of Yangtze, near Lutzulu, Yunnan 1; Kulu, 
Szechwan 8. 

Specimens from Szechwan and Yunnan south and west of 
Tatsienlu appear referable to this form which is barely recognizable 
on the basis of slight cranial characters. Specimens in the British 
Museum labeled thibetana are mostly from the Mekong- Yangtze 



328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Divide and the Likiang Range, both in Yunnan. The type of 
thibetana came from Mouping and no subsequent specimens from 
that exact region have yet been taken. In the British Museum, 
however, is a specimen from "Twenty-three miles southeast of 
Tatsienlu" which has been compared with the type by Thomas and 
has on its label the following notation: "May be accepted as typical 
of thibetana. Skull precisely agrees with that of type sent for com- 
parison from Paris. O. T. 12/21." Comparison of this skull with 
one of the present series from Kulu (which agrees essentially with a 
topotype of zappeyi) shows it to have a somewhat broader and 
deeper braincase, a flat, smooth interorbital region and slightly larger 
audital bullae. It may be assumed, therefore, that these characters 
distinguish thibetana from zappeyi, one being found eastward from 
Tatsienlu and the other westward and south westward. 

The small pikas of western China obviously fall into two specific 
groups typified by thibetana and cansa. The application of various 
binomial names to different forms of these two groups is confusing 
and serves to create the impression of much greater differentiation 
than really exists. Forms which seem so close to thibetana that 
subspecific rank is clearly indicated are 0. t. sacraria (which, if 
recognizable, is doubtless confined to Mount Omei), 0. t. syrinx 
(although compared with cansa in original description), 0. t. morosa 
(although actually linked with cansa as a subspecies), and 0. t. 
sikimaria (the skull of which is practically identical with that of 
zappeyi). 0. forresti, which has been stated as allied to thibetana, 
is probably more closely related to roylei. 

Ochotona cansa stevensi subsp. nov. 

Type from Wushi, southwest of Tatsienlu, Szechwan, China. 
No. 33,098 Field Museum of Natural History. Adult male. Col- 
lected May 14, 1929, by Herbert Stevens. Orig. No. 317. 

Diagnosis. Similar to 0. cansa, but skull longer, more slender, 
and less arched; audital bullae considerably smaller. 

Color. Practically as in 0. cansa, the under parts, at least in 
winter, with a sharply defined breast stripe of fulvous. 

Skull. Narrow and elongate; nasals of moderate width; audital 
bullae small. 

Measurements. Average of ten adults measured by the collector: 
total length 146.3 (140-152); hind foot (s.u.) 26 (25-27); ear 18.5 
(17-20). Skull of type: greatest length 35; condylo-incisive length 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 329 

33.4; zygomatic width 15.9; nasals 11 x 4.3; interorbital constriction 
3.6; width of braincase 12.7; palatal foramina 9 x 3.3; diagonal 
length audital bulla 9; upper cheek-teeth (alveoli) 6.6. 

Remarks. This form, which is the southernmost of the cansa 
group, is represented by a large series of thirty-eight from Wushi, 
two from Chaulu, which is between Wushi and Tatsienlu, and by 
a single specimen from Kwanchai, some distance northwest of 
Tatsienlu. It differs from typical cansa mainly in cranial characters 
among which the smaller audital bullae are most pronounced. 
Although the bullae are smaller than in cansa, they are practically 
the same size as in 0. c. sorella, the unique type of which has been 
compared with that of stevensi. In sorella, however, the nasals are 
longer and narrower and the braincase slightly wider. Since the 
range of cansa intervenes between that of sorella and stevensi, it 
is altogether probable that further specimens of sorella will sub- 
stantiate these apparently slight characters. Two immature speci- 
mens in Field Museum from Samsa Drok, Thibet, collected by R. B. 
Ekvall of Taochow, Kansu, have very small bullae but are too 
imperfect for exact determination. 

Sus cristatus jubatus Miller. WILD BOAR. 

Sus jubatus Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 30, p. 745, 1906 Trang, lower 
Siam. 

K.-R. Lao Fou Chai, L. 1 (skull) ; Phouc Mon, Quangtri, A. 1 
(skin and skull). 

REC. 1925-29. Djiring, A. 2; Phuquoc Island, C. 1. 

The larger of these is a male with its last molar barely erupted. 
The upper length of the skull is 380 and the toothrow 115. Since 
these are almost exactly the measurements given for the type of 
jubatus, that name is used; but material in hand is too limited for 
any positive conclusions. 

Tragulus kanchil affinis Gray. MOUSE DEER. 

Tragulus affinis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 138, 1861 Cambodia. 
Tragulus kanchil pierrei Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 11, p. 293, 

1903 near Bien Hoa, Cochin China. 
Tragulus kanchil affinis Bonhote, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 11, 1907 pierrei = 

affinis; Kloss, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 63, 1916. 

K.-R. Tha Ngon, Vientiane, L. 1 (skull). 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hoi Xuan, A. 1; Hue, A. 2; Quangtri, A. 1. 



330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 3. 

REC. 1925-29 Hu, A. 1; Kontoum, A. 2; Nape", L. 1; Phuqui, 
A. 1; Quangtri, A. 1; Thua Lua, A. 1. 

Mouse deer from Indo-China are somewhat duller in color than 
in ravus and affinis. The heads, especially, are more grayish or 
brownish and more contrasted with the body. The dark nuchal 
area is rather well marked. Season may account for part of this. 
Material representing typical affinis is as yet rather unsatisfactory 
and it is not unlikely that it will be found to stand in directly inter- 
mediate position between ravus and the Indo-Chinese specimens. 
The skull from Vientiane does not reach the published dimensions 
of williamsoni (Kloss, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 2, p. 88, 1916) 
but it is somewhat larger than one from Annam and its identification 
is doubtful. 

Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis Boddaert. BARKING DEER. 
Cervus vaginalis Boddaert, Blench. Anim., 1, p. 136, 1785 Bengal, India. 

K.-R. Can Ho, T. 1; Muong Yo, L. 1; Phong Saly, L. 1. 
D. & L. 1929-30. Chapa, T. 2. 
REC. 1925-29. Backan, T. 4. 

These are slightly paler than specimens of vaginalis from 
Darjeeling and Assam. Perhaps, therefore, they may be considered 
somewhat intermediate between vaginalis and curvostylis of Siam. 
Aside from general shade of color, the principal difference between 
vaginalis and curvostylis seems to be in the color of the legs, vaginalis 
having them brown in front for their whole length while curvostylis 
has the brown only on the lower part of the legs. In this character 
our specimens agree more closely with vaginalis. The front legs are 
brown anteriorly and ochraceous behind. The hind legs below the 
hock are brownish all around in two specimens while in the third 
there is a division much as in the front legs. 

A specimen in the British Museum from Backan, Tonkin, is 
slightly brighter than others from higher elevations and has the 
brown of the fore legs much narrowed in its upper part. On the hind 
legs also the brown is reduced and confined to the front side. This 
specimen may also be interpreted as intermediate, in this case perhaps 
tending toward M. m. nigripes. Specimens from Chapa are of similar 
character. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 331 

Muntiacus muntjak annamensis Kloss. 

Muntiacus muntjak annamensis Kloss, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 1, p. 399, 
March, 1928 Langbian Peak, Annam. 

K.-R. "Saigon," 3. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Thua Thien, A. 1. 

DEL. 1931-32. Thateng, L. 2. 

REC. 1925-29. Djiring, A. 1; Kontoum, A. 3; Tay Ninh, C.C. 2. 

Three specimens received from Saigon are in the collection and 
probably came from the Lagna River or Flat Rock River near the 
base of the plateau northeast of Saigon. One is an adult male received 
from F. J. Defosse and the others are younger animals collected by 
Theodore Roosevelt. 

In general body color these differ little from Tonkin specimens 
of vaginalis, but the legs and feet are noticeably different. Whereas 
the lower half of the legs is nearly uniform brownish in front in 
vaginalis, it is "reddish" with a median distal marking of blackish 
and a whitish spot above the cleft of the hoofs in annamensis. The 
pasterns behind and the area surrounding the dew claws also are 
blackish. Among specimens in the British Museum are several 
heretofore assigned to curvostylis which seem more nearly to agree 
with annamensis. By inference from the original description of 
annamensis it appears that typical curvostylis from southwestern 
Siam has the legs "dark brown below anteriorly." 

Muntiacus muntjak nigripes G. M. Allen. 

Muntiacus muntjak nigripes G. M. Allen, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 430, p. 11, 
Sept. 18, 1930 Nodoa, Hainan. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Hoi Xuan, A. 2. 

Two fine males from the lowlands near the coast of northern 
Annam agree quite closely in color with the description of this form 
recently named from specimens taken on Hainan. The very dark 
legs and feet are in striking contrast to the tawny body color. The 
dark marking extends to the shoulder in front and to the "knee" 
on the hind legs. On the lower part of the legs, especially in front, 
there are scattered white hairs. 

In size these mainland specimens are larger than the dimensions 
given for the type of nigripes from Hainan. This is, perhaps, only 
to be regarded as evidence of gradation toward vaginalis, and at 
least until much more material is examined, separation of another 
mainland form appears inadvisable. Specimens from Chapa, Tonkin, 



332 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

which have been referred to vaginalis, are obviously intermediate 
in color. 

The skulls of the specimens from Hoi Xuan have a condylo-basal 
length of about 200 mm., thus being about equal to that in vaginalis, 
but the toothrow is short, measuring only 61-62 as in nigripes. 

M untiacus rooseveltorum sp. nov. ROOSEVELT'S BARKING DEER. 

Type from Muong Yo, Laos. Altitude 2,300 feet. No. 31,783 
Field Museum of Natural History. Subadult male. Collected 
May 16, 1929, by Harold J. Coolidge, Jr. Orig. No. 89. 

Diagnosis. Characterized primarily by the great development 
of the mental glands (fig. 30) which are 1.25 inches in length on 
each side of the jaw and covered with stiff, close-standing, brownish 
hair 10 mm. long. Size intermediate between M. muntjak and M. 
reevesi; general color brownish, but the hairs annulated, producing 
a finely speckled effect over the entire body as in M. reevesi; skull 
with a relatively small preorbital pit as in M. muntjak, its anterior 
boundary about reaching the plane of the front of the second pre- 
molar; ascending branches of premaxillae separated from the nasals 
by a hooked process of the maxillary; nasals long and with only 
slight lateral expansion. 

Color. Similar in general to that of M. reevesi, but body with 
a more "reddish" tone and sides of face and antorbital region to 
rhinarium more brownish; body color approaching the Auburn of 
Ridgway, the hairs everywhere finely annulated and on close examina- 
tion appearing minutely speckled; top of head, cheeks, and base of 
ears bright Ochraceous Tawny; tail with a narrow dorsal line approx- 
imately like the body color; under side of tail broadly white; under 
parts more grayish than upper parts, becoming darker, almost 
Fuscous, on middle of chest; fore legs and lower scapular region 
Mummy Brown, the hind side of the legs thinly and narrowly lighter; 
hind legs Mummy Brown to the hocks and thence halfway to the base 
of the tail; throat white; inguinal region white and a narrow, ochra- 
ceous-bordered white line extending down the inside of the hind leg 
to a point opposite the hock; a spot on chin between mental glands 
blackish brown; glands drabbish brown, the hairs paler basally. 

Skull. Intermediate in size between M. reevesi and M. muntjak 
vaginalis (toothrow 58.6); preorbital pit as in the muntjak series, 
relatively small, its anterior border about even with the front of the 
second premolar; upper part of lacrymal above and in front of pit 



1932 



MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 



expanded into a nearly vertical plate 9 mm. in width; maxillo- 
lacrymal vacuity short and broad as in muntjak, not long and narrow 
as in reevesi; ascending premaxillae separated from nasals as in 
reevesi, not fully meeting nasals as in muntjak; nasals long and wider 
anteriorly than in either muntjak or reevesi and with only slight 
lateral expansion into maxillo-lacrymal vacuity, in this last respect 
being rather more like reevesi. 

Measurements. Collector's measurements of type: total length 
1,024; tail 136; hind foot 349. Skull of type and specimens of reevesi 
and vaginalis: 1 greatest length 188, 171, 213; condylo-basal length 
173, , 200; zygomatic breadth 76, 70, 89.5; occiput to back of nasals 




FIG. 30. Muzzle of Muntiacus rooseveltorum showing mental glands. 

114.5, 105.2, ; length of nasals 55.8, 48.9, 50.8; length of palate 
from gnathion 113.2, , 129; upper toothrow 58.6, 50.5, 68. 

Remarks. A diagnostic character of this species and a feature 
of very great interest are the pair of highly developed glandular 
brushes on either side of the chin. Although all muntjaks appear 
to have at least traces of such glands, they are usually so small and 
inconspicuous that heretofore they have not been noticed. So far 
as known, they do not occur in other ungulates and no observations 
in regard to them in the living animal are available. In the dry 
specimen they appear quite clean, dry, and free from any odor or 
secretion, but that they are outgrowths from a glandular base can 

1 The figures in second position are those of the type of reevesi and those in 
third position of a specimen of vaginalis from Phong Saly, Laos. 



334 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

scarcely be doubted. They are oblong in shape and measure about 
33 mm. x 22 mm. The hairs are tubular, very stiff and upstanding 
and their pointed tips are slightly curved. Depending from them 
are six to eight long, soft, exserted hairs about 30 mm. in length 
and entirely similar to others which are scattered on the sides of 
the nose. The brownish color of these tufts is in sharp contrast 
to the white and ochraceous of the throat and face, so they are very 
conspicuous. Their position naturally suggests that they may serve 
to distribute scent as the animal feeds, but at present this can be 
no more than an assumption. 

In determining the relationships of this animal, the entire 
muntjak group has been somewhat cursorily reviewed. Aside from 
the very large and quite distinct species crinifrons and the very 
little known feae with its blackish color and supposed absence of 
frontal glands, all the described forms appear to fall into one or 
the other of two well-defined groups. These are represented by the 
names M. muntjak and M. reevesi. In Lydekker's Catalogue of 
Ungulates all the forms of the first series have been regarded as 
subspecies of M. muntjak, as it seems to me quite properly. But 
in the other series, several supposed distinct species are recognized 
upon rather scant basis. If M. lacrymans and M. sinensis had been 
included among the subspecies of reevesi, it would have been more 
consistent and more conducive to a clear understanding of the actual 
relationships. This has been commented upon by A. B. Howell 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 75, p. 75, 1929) and G. M. Allen (Am. Mus. 
Novit., No. 430, p. 12, 1930), the latter being disposed to reduce all 
the supposed forms of reevesi to synonymy. 

As species, M. muntjak and M. reevesi in all their varieties differ 
not only in size and color but in important and unmistakable cranial 
characters. The cranial differences are mainly connected with the 
much larger relative size of the preorbital gland in reevesi. In the 
present species, rooseveltorum, there is a curious combination of these 
cranial characters of muntjak and reevesi which makes it difficult to 
be certain as to which it has greatest affinity. That it is very distinct 
from both seems amply evidenced by the extraordinary mental 
glands, but it shares one set of cranial characters with muntjak and 
another with reevesi. Further specimens will be of the highest interest. 

Cervus eldi siamensis Lydekker. THAMENG DEER. 

Cervus eldi siamensis Lydekker, Cat. Ungul. Brit. Mus., 4, p. 104, 1915 
southern Siam. 



1932 1V6AMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 335 

One skull bearing a fine pair of antlers is a part of the collection 
shipped from Saigon by Theodore Roosevelt. 

Cervus porcinus annamiticus Heude. HOG DEER. 

Hyelaphus annamiticus Heude, Mem. Hist. Emp. Chinois, 2, p. 50, 1888 
Annam. 

K.-R. Lagna River, C.C. 3. 

Three adults, collected May 19 by Theodore Roosevelt and C. 
Suydam Cutting, bear out the characters assigned to this form and 
indicate that it is quite well marked. As compared with Indian 
hog deer they are larger, more richly colored, and in summer pelage 
unspotted. A male, which is in very glossy coat, appears uniformly 
colored in direct view but oblique reflections reveal evidences of a 
spotted pattern. The animal is reported to be abundant, although 
recorded specimens preserved in museums are few. 

Rusa unicolor equinus Cuvier. EASTERN SAMBUR DEER. 

Cervus equinus Cuvier, Oss. Foss., ed. 2, 4, p. 45, pi. 5, figs. 37, 38, 1823 
Sumatra. 

K.-R. Boun Tai, L. 5 (horns only); Flat Rock River, C.C. 1. 

WULSIN 1924. Makai, near Tha Khek, L. 2. 

REC. 1925-29. Djiring, A. 2. 

Following Lydekker, the samburs of southern Indo-China may 
be referred for the present to the form originally described from 
Sumatra. The antlers examined agree in having the beams very 
heavy at the base and the spread is much less than usual in heads 
from India and Ceylon. A good pair measures 790 mm. (31 in.) in 
length of beam; the circumference above the burr is 190 (7.5 in.). 

Rusa unicolor dejeani Pousargues. NORTHERN SAMBUR DEER. 

Rusa dejeani Pousargues, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 2, p. 12, 1896 Szechwan. 

K.-R. Chiulung (about lat. 29 15' N.), Szechwan 1. 

A female in handsome coat (February 21) was shot by Theodore 
Roosevelt in northwestern Szechwan a few days' march southwest 
of Tatsienlu. Its color is very rich, dark brown with a broad line 
of still darker, almost blackish, down the middle of the back, and 
a wholly black, very bushy tail. Toward the hind quarters there 
is a very heavy suffusion of ochraceous. The legs are broadly brownish 
fawn in front and white behind. The hairs of the end of the tail 
reach a length slightly exceeding 6 in., those on the side about 4 in. 

A pair of antlers without label is in the collection made by Stevens 
in western China. These measure 22 inches in length of beam. Two 



336 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

specimens have been recorded recently (1930) by G. M. Allen 
from Yunnan and, although the characteristics of the race dejeani 
are still uncertain, it is evident the animals regularly range through- 
out western Yunnan and Szechwan. The Roosevelts, in notes 
published with the popular account of their trip, make the following 
statement: "Sambhur have a very wide range, and from the time we 
left Bhamo until we reached Ningyuan we were rarely out of sambhur 
country. We found sambhur signs at altitudes varying from four 
to fourteen thousand feet. Many of the horns we saw were both 
long and exceptionally massive." 

Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis Rothschild. BURRHEL SHEEP. 

Pseudois nahoor szechuanensis Rothschild, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 10, 

p. 231, Aug., 1922 Szechwan, China. 
Pseudois nayaur caesia A. B. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 118, 1928 

Minshan Range, Kansu, China. 

K.-R. Tsung Gu, east of Tatsienlu, Szechwan 3. 

Two adult males and a younger male, all shot by Theodore 
Roosevelt, are in the collection. The horns measure about 25 inches 
in length and 12.5 inches in circumference at base. The skins are 
very dark in color, but the lateral stripe is not very widely interrupted. 
The white on the knees is reduced to a small spot margined with 
blackish or represented only by a few white hairs. It is fairly evident, 
therefore, that the northern race is considerably darker than the 
typical one. 

Notes published by the Roosevelts include the following: "Burrhel 
or blue sheep we first heard of when we were leaving the Muli 
territory. They are known locally as pan yang. We saw heads 
and skins, and were told that if we wished to trek from a day to 
two days away from the trail we would find them plentiful. They 
live at about fourteen thousand feet elevation. Besides those shot 
two days north of Tatsienlu, we heard of them near Muping. They 
should also live in the mountains near Yehli, but there we saw 
neither hide nor horn." 

The original description of this form was based on a mounted 
specimen from Szechwan and a skull from Shensi, both of which 
were mentioned as types. Applying the principle of page priority 
and considering the name chosen, the mounted specimen from 
Szechwan doubtless should be taken as the unique type. A later 
name caesia is now on the books, applied to specimens from Kansu 
which lies between Shensi and Szechwan. This emphasizes the need 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 337 

for an exact type locality even though there may prove to be no 
recognizable differences between the animals of Szechwan, Kansu 
and Shensi. The name caesia apparently was proposed without 
knowledge of the earlier szechuanensis and may be regarded as a 
synonym. 

Capricornis sumatraensis milne-edwardsi David. SEROW. 

Capricornis milne-edwardsi David, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 5, 
Bull., p. 10, 1869 Mouping, Szechwan. 

K.-R. Mount Gibboh, between Yungning and Muli, Szechwan 
1; "Szechwan," 1 (skull). 

The skin of a subadult male shot by Kermit Roosevelt in western 
Szechwan is richly colored with the lower legs Ochraceous Tawny 
and the side of the muzzle has the "tan-colored" spot regarded by 
Allen (Am. Mus. Novit., No. 410, p. 5, 1930) as characteristic of 
this form. 

A skull obtained by Stevens is without exact locality. It is 
quite large, measuring 320 mm. in occipito-nasal length; zygomatic 
width 123; toothrow 96.5; horn over front curve 205 (8^ inches). 

Capricornis sumatraensis maritimus Heude. SEROW. 

Capricornis maritimuLs Heude, Mem. Hist. Emp. Chinois, 2, p. 4, note, 1888; 
ibid., p. 226, 1894 Tonkin. 

D. & L. 1929-30. Ninh Bum, T. 2. 

REC. 1925-29. Langson, T. 1; Nong-bat-koo, L. 3 (frontlets); 
Than Hoa, A. 1; Vinh, A. 1. 

One of these specimens which is in hand is subadult, but 
apparently represents a form of relatively small size and dark color. 
The head and body are mainly blackish with the hairs whitish at the 
base. The lower legs and rump are tawny and there are light 
maxillary stripes of mixed tawny and whitish. There are no tawny 
spots on the sides of the face. The teeth, so far as comparable in 
the specimens examined, are smaller than in other recognized forms. 

Of the several names given by Heude to serows from Tonkin, 
maritimus appears to be the earliest and its use is perhaps justified 
even though the exact status of the form has not been worked out. 

Bos (Bibos) banteng subsp. BANTING Ox. 

K.-R. Flat Rock River, C.C. 2; Lagna River, C.C. 1. 
WULSIN 1924. Lai Chau, T. 1. 



338 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XVIII 

Three fine specimens, all females, were obtained by Theodore 
Roosevelt in southern Annam. A partly grown calf from Laos is 
in the Wulsin collection. 

The name laosiensis (Heude, Mem. Hist. Emp. Chinois, 5, p. 3, 
1901) is perhaps applicable to these specimens. In one of the cows 
above mentioned, the horns swing upward and inward to such an 
extent that the tips cross each other. 

Bos (Bubalus) bubalis subsp. WATER BUFFALO. 
K.-R. Lagna River, C.C. 3. 

Two males and a female collected by Theodore Roosevelt and 
C. Suydam Cutting have furnished the material for a mounted 
group in Field Museum. They stand about 4.5 feet at the shoulder, 
the body color is slaty or grayish rather than black, and the lower 
legs are pale. Uncertainty apparently exists as to whether or not 
the water buffalo of this region are feral. At least their exact classi- 
fication without other material for comparison is quite hopeless. 

Bos (Bibos) gaurus readi Lydekker. GAUR Ox. 

Bos gaurus readi Lydekker, Zoologist, (4), 7, p. 266, 1903 Burma. 
K.-R. Flat Rock River, C.C. 1. 

Besides a fine male collected by Theodore Roosevelt, there are 
also in Field Museum, from the same region, a male collected by 

F. J. Defosse, two females collected and presented by C. Rydell, 
and a very large male and a small calf collected and presented by 

G. F. Ryan and George G. Carey, Jr. 

Although the gaur is common and well known to sportsmen 
visiting the southern end of the plateaus of Annam, its occurrence 
there has received little mention in zoological literature. Blanford 
in the Mammals of India (1891, p. 485) says: "The eastern range 
of this species is not clearly known except that it is said to extend 
to Siam and, I believe, to Cochin China." Kloss, in writing on 
mammals from Siam, says: "Practically all Siamese specimens have 
been obtained in the north or west." Lydekker's Catalogue of 
Ungulates records no eastern specimens. 

In the absence of comparative material, the name of the Burmese 
race has been arbitrarily applied to the specimens at hand. 

Manis pentadactyla subsp. PANGOLIN. 

K.-R. Muong Tia, T. 1; Nam He, T. 1 (flat skin only); Phong 
Saly, L. 2. 



1932 MAMMALS ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS OSGOOD 339 

These are somewhat larger than M. p. dalmanni of southeastern 
China as denned by G. M. Allen (Am. Mus. Novit., No. 429, p. 6, 
1930) and perhaps are nearer to M. p. pusilla of Hainan of which 
no specimens are in hand. The largest has the following dimensions 
taken by the collector: total length 718; tail 270; hind foot 71. The 
skull has a condylo-basal length of 85, whereas Allen states that 
Fukien skulls average 74 and Hainan skulls 82. The scales around 
the body are uniformly in series of 13 while the number in the 
Burmese form aurita is said to be 15-18. 

Paramanis javanica Desmarest. PANGOLIN. 

Manis javanica Desmarest, Mamm., p. 377, 1822 Java. 

DEL. 1931-32 Thateng, L. 1. 

REC. 1925-29. Kontoum, A. 2; Tay Ninh, C.C. 1. 



IWBMN C? Tfl 



* 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA